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Table 4 Adjusted effect of amitriptyline, duloxetine, and gabapentin, compared to pregabalin, on health care utilization during the follow-up period a

From: Patterns of health care utilization related to initiation of amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin, or pregabalin in fibromyalgia

Health care utilization Amitriptyline, RR (95% CI) b Duloxetine, RR (95% CI) b Gabapentin, RR (95% CI) b
Outpatient visitsc 0.91 (0.84 to 0.99)* 0.94 (0.88 to 1.00)* 0.94 (0.88 to 1.00)*
PCP visitsc 0.99 (0.90 to 1.09) 0.92 (0.85 to 0.98)* 0.92 (0.85 to 0.98)*
Any specialist visitsc 0.85 (0.77 to 0.95)* 0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)* 0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)*
Prescription drugsc 0.97 (0.91 to 1.03) 0.94 (0.90 to 0.98)* 0.94 (0.90 to 0.98)*
Acute hospitalizationd 0.70 (0.62 to 0.80)* 0.75 (0.68 to 0.83)* 0.95 (0.89 to 1.01)
ED visitsc 0.94 (0.86 to 1.03) 0.85 (0.79 to 0.91)* 1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)
Physical therapyd 0.92 (0.80 to 1.06) 0.81 (0.71 to 0.92)* 1.12 (1.03 to 1.21)
  1. aCI, Confidence interval; ED, Emergency department; PCP, Primary care physician; RR, Rate ratio. bPregabalin was used as the reference group. cMultivariable Poisson regression was used. dMultivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used. *Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). All rate ratios were adjusted for neuropathic pain and the number of outpatient visits, PCP visits, any specialist visits, prescription drugs, acute hospitalizations, and ED visits at baseline.