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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study participants

From: Beer and wine consumption and risk of knee or hip osteoarthritis: a case control study

Risk factor Control, number = 933 Knee OA, number = 1001 Hip OA, number = 993  
Number % Number % Number % P value a
Age, mean (SD) 63.4 (8.5) 68.3 (7.3) 67.6 (7.1) <0.001
Gender, Male 484 51.9 519 51.9 494 49.8 0.556
Body mass Index (BMI)        
BMI, mean (SD) 27.3 (4.5) 31.2 (5.3) 29.3 (5.2) <0.001
<25 kg/m2 308 33.0 90 9.0 191 19.2 <0.001
>25 to <30 kg/m2 396 42.4 363 36.3 413 41.6  
≥30 kg/m2 229 24.5 547 54.7 389 39.2  
Social Class        <0.001
I and II 275 29.8 176 17.9 217 22.1  
III 211 22.8 204 20.7 235 23.9  
IV 261 28.3 361 36.6 302 30.7  
V and VI 177 19.2 245 24.9 230 23.4  
Smoking        <0.001
Never 317 34.0 441 44.1 391 39.4  
Past smoker 407 43.6 463 46.3 499 50.3  
Current smoker 209 22.4 97 9.7 103 10.4  
Occupational risk factors        0.522
No knee OA risk factors 471 50.5 529 53.0 537 54.2  
1 knee OA risk factor 145 15.7 140 14.0 146 14.7  
2 knee OA risk factors 142 15.2 160 16.0 155 15.6  
3 + knee OA risk factors 174 18.7 169 16.9 153 15.4  
Significant joint injury 157 16.8 332 33.2 221 22.3 <0.001
Co-morbidities        
Hypertension 339 36.3 519 51.9 451 45.5 <0.001
Heart disease 154 16.5 234 23.5 179 18.1 <0.001
Type 1 diabetes 11 1.2 22 2.2 7 0.7 0.013
Type 2 diabetes 63 6.8 92 9.2 69 7.0 0.077
Stroke/haemorrhage 45 4.8 65 6.5 57 5.8 0.281
Kidney disease 368 39.5 61 6.1 61 6.1 <0.001
Liver disease 34 3.6 22 2.2 34 3.4 0.137
Gout 62 6.6 109 10.9 93 9.4 0.004
Diuretic use 190 20.4 359 35.9 352 35.5 <0.001
  1. aΧ2 test for categorical data; one-way analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) for continuous data. The number per group, mean (s.d.) or percentage prevalence are presented. OA, osteoarthritis; SD, standard deviation.