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Table 2 Disease-specific metabolic abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

From: T-cell metabolism in autoimmune disease

  Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic lupus erythematosus
Total oxidative status (serum MDA level) Low High
T-cell oxygen consumption ? High
T-cell TCA cycle activity ? High
T-cell ROS level Low High
T-cell glycolytic activity Low ?
Serum metabolites Low glycolysis
   Low TCA cycle
   Low fatty acid oxidation
   Low amino acid metabolism
   Low long-chain fatty acids
   High free fatty acids
Synovial fluid metabolites Low glucose
  Low fatty acids  
  High glutamine  
  High amino acids  
  1. MDA, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TCA, tricarboxylic acid.