Evaluation of candidate miRNAs as potential biomarkers of response to anti-TNFα/DMARDs combination therapy. (A) Changes in relative expression levels of the six miRNAs validated in plasma of RA patients (n = 95) before and after anti-TNFα/DMARDs combination therapy (T1-T2). Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated after plotting the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. (B) ROC curve analyses of miR-23a-3p (left panel) and miR-223-3p (right panel), which showed the highest values for AUC; below is shown the combined panel for the two miRNAs performed as described in Material and methods. (C) Sensitivity and specificity of each miRNA test. Cutoff value with higher specificity was selected. DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; miRNAs, microRNAs; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; T1, baseline; T2, at 6 months; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor alpha.