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Table 1 Phenotype of human B-cell subsets in the periphery

From: Polychromatic flow cytometry in evaluating rheumatic disease patients

B-cell subset   Phenotype a Function/properties b Perturbation
Transitional cells T1/T2 IgD + CD27 MTG+CD24++CD38++CD10+IgM+ Developmental precursor ↓ in SLE
  T3 IgD + CD27 MTG+CD24+CD38+CD10IgM+ Developmental precursor ↑ in SLE
Naïve cells Resting IgD + CD27 MTGCD21+CD24+/−CD38+/−IgM+CD95 Developmental precursor ↓ in SLE, ↑ in SSc
  Activated IgD + CD27 MTG+CD21CD24CD38IgM+CD95+ Precursor of short-lived plasmablast and GC reaction ↑ in SLE, ↑in SScc
  Anergic IgD + CD27 MTGCD24CD38IgMlow/– Hyporesponsive. Maintenance of tolerance ↓ in SLE
Memory cells Unswitched IgM+ IgD + CD27 +CD1c+ Natural memory marginal zone equivalent ↓ in SLE, RA, pSS
  IgM-only IgM+ IgD CD27 + Pre-switch memory. Early IgM memory. IgG memory precursor ↑ in SLE
  Switched    
   Resting IgD CD27 +CD21+CD95IgG/A+ Protective anti-microbial memory? ↓ in SLE
   Activated IgD CD27 +CD21CD95+IgG/A+ Pathogenic autoimmune memory? ↑ in SLE, ↓ in pSS
  Double-negative IgD CD27 IgM/G/A+ Tissue based-memory. Exhausted memory?d ↑ in SLE
Antibody secreting cells Pre-plasmablasts IgD CD27 +/− CD38 ++CD138Ki67+ Antibody secretion ↑ in SLE
  Plasmablasts IgD CD27 ++ CD38 ++CD138Ki67+ Antibody secretion ↑ in SLE, RAe
  Plasma cells IgD CD27 ++ CD38 ++CD138+Ki67+ Antibody secretion ↑ in SLE, RAe
Regulatory B cells Bregs CD24hiCD38hi IL-10 production Loss of function in SLE
   CD24hiCD27+   
   IgD+CD27+CD43+CD70CD11b+   
9G4+ B cells 9G4+ 9G4+ VH4-34 encoded autoreactive B cells ↑ in SLE
RP105 B cells RP105 RP105 (IgDCD38hiCD138dull) Resemble antibody secreting cells ↑ in SLE, pSS
  1. aMarkers in bold font indicate commonly defined core subsets. bReferences for the indicated function/properties are incorporated throughout the text. cDefined as CD19hiCD21low B cells. dUnlike the exhausted memory cells in HIV-infected and malaria-infected subjects, double-negative cells in SLE do not express FCRL4. eIn RA, the increase in antibody secreting cells is observed in synovial tissues. GC, germinal center; IL, interleukin; pSS, primary Sjogren’s syndrome; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SSC, systemic sclerosis.