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Table 2 Clinical features at baseline and last follow-up visit in patients in the high and low pulse-wave velocity (PWV) groups

From: Cumulative inflammatory burden is independently associated with increased arterial stiffness in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a prospective study

  Baseline Last visit
  Low PWV High PWV P -value Low PWV High PWV P -value
Male gender, n (%) 17 (50.0%) 19 (50.0%) 1.000 17 (50.0%) 19 (50.0%) 1.000
Age, years 43.3 ± 10.2 55.2 ± 10.0 <0.001 49.6 ± 10.1 61.6 ± 9.9 <0.001
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) characteristics       
  PsA disease duration, years 7.6 ± 7.0 10.7 ± 7.5 0.073 13.9 ± 7.2 17.1 ± 7.8 0.075
  Tender joint count, 0 to 68 2 (0 to 6) 3 (0 to 8) 0.551 1 (0 to 3) 1 (0 to 5) 0.248
  Swollen joint count, 0 to 66 0 (0 to 2) 1 (0 to 3) 0.827 0 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 1) 0.376
  Damaged joint count, 0 to 68 1 (0 to 3) 2 (0 to 6) 0.118 0 (0 to 4) 4 (0 to 8) 0.010
  Visual analog scale pain, 0 to 100 40 (20 to 60) 50 (30 to 70) 0.212 30 (20 to 50) 30 (20 to 60) 0.964
  Patients’ global assessment, 0 to 100 50 (20 to 60) 50 (40 to 60) 0.258 50 (20 to 60) 33 (20 to 60) 0.654
  Physicians’ global assessment, 0 to 100 10 (0 to 20) 20 (5 to 30) 0.462 19 (6 to 35) 20 (7 to 30) 0.399
  Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, 0 to 72 2.6 (1.0 to 7.3) 3.0 (0.7 to 7.7) 0.879 1.8 (0.6 to 5.4) 1.7 (0.3 to 7.4) 0.879
  Health assessment questionnaire, 0 to 3 0.25 (0.13 to 0.63) 0.56 (0.13 to 1.00) 0.120 0.13 (0 to 0.50) 0.38 (0 to 1.13) 0.146
  Minimal disease activity, n (%) 10 (29.4%) 6 (15.8%) 0.165 6 (17.6%) 8 (21.1%) 0.715
  Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis, 0 to 164 14 (7 to 19) 17 (12 to 22) 0.132 11 (7 to 15) 12 (5 to 18) 0.827
  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/1st h 16 (7 to 34) 27 (13 to 56) 0.048 11 (5 to 22) 29 (13 to 56) <0.001
  C-reactive protein, mg/dl 0.3 (0.1 to 1.2) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.3) 0.527 0.2 (0.1 to 0.5) 0.4 (0.2 to 0.8) 0.023
Cardiovascular risk factors       
  Body weight, kg 66.1 ± 12.4 64.4 ± 11.8 0.540 68.1 ± 12.0 63.6 ± 11.0 0.099
  Body height, cm 161 ± 8 161 ± 9 0.891    
  Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 132 ± 23 140 ± 21 0.113 121 ± 13 132 ± 16 0.002
  Hypertension, n (%) 10 (29.4%) 26 (68.4%) 0.001 15 (44.1%) 29 (76.3%) 0.005
  Diabetes, n (%) 3 (8.8%) 13 (34.2%) 0.010 3 (8.8%) 13 (34.2%) 0.010
  Framingham 10-year CVD risk >10%, n (%) 8 (23.5%) 22 (57.9%) 0.003 9 (26.5%) 27 (71.1%) <0.001
  Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.1 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 1.0 0.814 5.0 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 0.7 0.468
  High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 1.6 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.5 0.782 1.5 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 0.467
  Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.4 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 1.1 0.285 1.3 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 1.0 0.363
  Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.3 ± 1.6 5.7 ± 1.0 0.227 5.2 ± 1.0 5.6 ± 1.9 0.287
Medications, n (%)       
  Anti-hypertensive drugs 3 (8.8%) 17 (44.7%) <0.001 14 (41.2%) 28 (73.7%) 0.005
  Statins 0 (0%) 1 (2.6%) 1.000 7 (20.6%) 7 (18.4%) 0.817
  Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 13 (38.2%) 20 (52.6%) 0.221 16 (47.1%) 15 (39.5%) 0.516
  Steroids 2 (5.9%) 2 (5.3%) 0.999 1 (2.9%) 2 (5.3%) 0.999
  Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs 15 (44.1%) 21 (55.3%) 0.345 18 (52.9%) 22 (57.9%) 0.673
  Biologics 0 (0%) 0 (0%) N.S. 7 (20.6%) 4 (10.5%) 0.236
  1. Variables with P-values <0.1 (values in bold text) were candidates for multivariate analysis. Values are presented as number (percentage), median (interquatile range), or mean ± SD.