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Table 1 Characteristics of patients undergoing total ankle arthroplasty, 1998 to 2011

From: Racial disparities in total ankle arthroplasty utilization and outcomes

  White Black P value
  ( n= 12,122) ( n= 488)  
Age (years) 61.9 (61.1, 62.7) 52.0 (49.6, 54.3) <0.0001
Female 54.8 61.9 0.19
Age group    
  < 50 years 15.5 42.2 <0.0001
  50 to 64 years 38.3 43.6 0.28
  65 to 79 years 41.2 12.5 <0.0001
  ≥ 80 years 5.1 1.7 0.11
Underlying diagnosis    
  Osteoarthritis 62.5 47.2 0.005
  Rheumatoid arthritis 5.6 10.3 0.04
  Fracture 0.1 1.0 0.04
  Traumatic arthropathy 18.8 18.6 0.96
  Avascular necrosis 0.5 0.9 0.51
  Other 12.6 22.0 0.01
Deyo-Charlson score    
  0 71.8 65.8 0.25
  1 23.2 22.9 0.96
  ≥ 2 5.0 11.2 0.01
Hospital volume (procedures/year)    
  < 5 35.2 47.6 0.04
  5 to 9 25.6 26.5 0.89
  10 to 14 12.3 5.7 0.14
  15 to 24 17.7 14.4 0.42
  ≥ 25 9.3 5.8 0.21
  1. Data presented as mean (95% confidence interval) or percentage.