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Table 2 Time trends in annual total ankle arthroplasty utilization by race

From: Racial disparities in total ankle arthroplasty utilization and outcomes

Year White Black P value
1998 0.14 0.07 <0.0001
1999 0.32 0.04 <0.0001
2000 0.29 0.07 <0.0001
2001 0.52 0.01 <0.0001
2002 0.35 0.13 <0.0001
2003 0.33 0.08 <0.0001
2004 0.40 0.06 <0.0001
2005 0.25 0.07 <0.0001
2006 0.18 0.05 <0.0001
2007 0.26 0.05 <0.0001
2008 0.47 0.10 <0.0001
2009 0.58 0.18 <0.0001
2010 0.90 0.09 <0.0001
2011 1.17 0.33 <0.0001
  1. Total ankle arthroplasty utilization rates increased from 1998 to 2011: White, P <0.0001; Black, P <0.0001 (Cochran Armitage trend test for time trends). White–Black disparity was significantly more in 2011 compared with 1998: P <0.0001.