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Table 3 Time trends in total ankle arthroplasty utilization rates per 100,000 by race and gender

From: Racial disparities in total ankle arthroplasty utilization and outcomes

  White males Black males White females Black females P value
1998 0.11 0.07 0.17 0.06 <0.0001
1999 0.36 0.09 0.27 0 N/A
2000 0.29 0 0.29 0.13 N/A
2001 0.49 0 0.56 0.03 N/A
2002 0.28 0.06 0.41 0.20 <0.0001
2003 0.25 0.11 0.39 0.05 <0.0001
2004 0.34 0.03 0.45 0.10 <0.0001
2005 0.22 0.03 0.28 0.10 <0.0001
2006 0.16 0.11 0.19 0 N/A
2007 0.22 0.04 0.29 0.06 <0.0001
2008 0.42 0.05 0.53 0.14 <0.0001
2009 0.57 0.19 0.59 0.16 <0.0001
2010 0.84 0.05 0.97 0.12 <0.0001
2011 1.13 0.25 1.22 0.41 <0.0001
  1. N/A, not applicable since a frequency of 0 for at least one category did not allow calculation of a P value; a frequency of 0 indicates that no TAA procedure was performed in that group in that calendar year. Cochran Armitage trend test for time trend from 1998 to 2011: White males, P <0.0001; Black males, P = 0.0031; White females, P <0.0001; and Black females, P <0.0001. The p-value in the table indicates the difference between the groups.