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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and carotid ultrasound characteristics of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and sex- and age-matched controls

From: Bone mineral density and carotid atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled cross-sectional study

  SLE, n = 111 Controls, n = 111 P -value
Age, years 48.6 (13.0) 48.8 (12.9) 0.939
Females, n % 99 (89.2%) 99 (89.2%) 1.0
Postmenopausal, n (%) 48 (48.5%) 52 (52.5%) 0.572
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.9 (4.4) 25.1 (4.4) 0.657
Ever smoking, n (%) 62 (55.9%) 61 (55.0%) 0.893
Hypertension, n (%) 65 (58.6%) 26 (23.4%) <0.001
Hypercholesterolaemia, n (%) 54 (48.6%) 55 (49.5) 0.893
Diabetes, n (%) 6 (5.4%) 3 (2.7%) 0.499
History of cardiovascular disease, n (%) 15 (13.5%) 2 (1.8%) 0.001
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, mg/l 2.0 (0.8 to 4.8) 1.2 (0.5 to 2.5) 0.001
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/h 21.0 (12.3 to 31) 8.0 (5.0 to 13.0) <0.001
Carotid measurements    
Intima media thickness, mean, mm 0.62 (0.13) 0.63 (0.13) 0.766
Plaque presence, n (%)    0.023
No plaque 61 (55.0%) 80 (72.1%)  
Unilateral 20 (18.0%) 15 (13.5%)  
Bilateral 30 (27.0%) 16 (14.4%)  
Plaque echogenicity, n (%)    
Echolucent (versus no plaque) 42 (37.8%) 28 (25.2%) 0.022
Echogenic (versus no plaque) 13 (11.7%) 5 (4.5%) 0.020
  1. Values are number (percent), mean (SD) or median (IQR). P-values indicate between-group differences.