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Table 4 Odds ratio for carotid plaque in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with matched controls

From: Bone mineral density and carotid atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled cross-sectional study

  Unadjusted models P -value Multivariate adjusted models P -value Postmenopausal* adjusted models P -value
  Odds ratio (95% CI)   Odds ratio (95% CI)   Odds ratio (95% CI)  
BMD       
Total body 2.11 (1.20, 3.72) 0.010 1.77 (0.96, 3.24) 0.066 2.62 (1.10, 6.24) 0.030
Lumbar spine, vertebrae L1 to L4 2.08 (1.18, 3.66) 0.011 1.75 (0.96, 3.21) 0.070 2.59 (1.08, 6.19) 0.032
Total hip 2.00 (1.14, 3.52) 0.016 1.74 (0.95, 3.18) 0.074 2.71 (1.13, 6.52) 0.026
Femoral neck 2.06 (1.17, 3.63) 0.013 1.76 (0.96, 3.22) 0.067 2.72 (1.14, 6.46) 0.024
T -score       
Total body 2.12 (1.20, 3.74) 0.010 1.78 (0.97, 3.26) 0.064 2.63 (1.10, 6.26) 0.029
Lumbar spine, vertebrae L1 to L4 2.11 (1.20, 3.72) 0.009 1.78 (0.97, 3.26) 0.062 2.66 (1.12, 6.33) 0.027
Total hip 1.98 (1.13, 3.49) 0.018 1.72 (0.94, 3.15) 0.079 2.69 (1.12, 6.46) 0.027
Femoral neck 2.02 (1.14, 3.56) 0.016 1.74 (0.95, 3.19) 0.073 2.73 (1.15, 6.51) 0.023
WHO osteoporosis       
Low BMD, lumbar spine 2.17 (1.23, 3.82) 0.008 1.73 (0.94, 3.19) 0.080 2.63 (1.09, 6.32) 0.031
Low BMD, total hip 1.98 (1.12, 3.49) 0.018 1.70 (0.93, 3.12) 0.085 2.75 (1.15, 6.58) 0.023
Low BMD, femoral neck 2.00 (1.13, 3.54) 0.017 1.72 (0.94, 3.16) 0.079 2.74 (1.15, 6.55) 0.024
Low BMD, at least one region 2.08 (1.19, 3.64) 0.010 1.78 (0.97, 3.24) 0.062 2.71 (1.14, 6.46) 0.024
  1. Multivariate models were adjusted for hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and history of cardiovascular disease. *Analysis of postmenopausal women only. Low BMD is defined as a T-score < −1.0 SD. WHO, World Health Organisation.