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Table 5 Potential contributors for the relationship between total body bone mineral density (BMD) and carotid measurements in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients

From: Bone mineral density and carotid atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled cross-sectional study

Variable Carotid intima-media thickness mean upper tertile, odds ratio (95% CI) P -value Bilateral plaque, odds ratio (95% CI) P -value
Traditional factors     
Age, per 10-year increase 2.29 (1.73, 2.89) <0.001 1.68 (1.23, 2.14) 0.003
Female 1.86 (0.46, 7.64) 0.387 1.90 (0.41, 8.87) 0.412
Body mass index, per 1-kg/m2 increase 1.18 (1.06, 1.32) 0.002 1.10 (0.99, 1.23) 0.070
Ever smoking, versus never 3.11 (1.29, 7.48) 0.011 2.99 (1.13, 7.93) 0.027
Blood pressure systolic, per 10-mmHg increase 1.43 (1.18, 1.68) 0.001 1.24 (1.01, 1.47) 0.040
Blood pressure diastolic, per 10-mmHg increase 1.18 (0.83, 1.54) 0.312 0.96 (0.61, 1.33) 0.847
Cholesterol total 1.26 (0.88, 1.80) 0.205 1.52 (1.03, 2.23) 0.036
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 1.42 (0.89, 2.26) 0.137 2.29 (1.32, 3.99) 0.003
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 0.61 (0.26, 1.43) 0.254 0.21 (0.07, 0.66) 0.007
Low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol 1.40 (0.86, 2.27) 0.171 3.37 (1.77, 6.42) <0.001
Triglycerides 2.26 (1.12, 4.57) 0.023 3.14 (1.46, 6.73) 0.003
Diabetes mellitus - 0.999 6.56 (1.11, 38.65) 0.038
History of cardiovascular disease 1.49 (0.48, 4.63) 0.493 7.44 (2.20, 25.15) <0.001
Disease factors     
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, per 10 mg/l increase 1.30 (0.61, 2.04) 0.404 0.97 (0.90, 1.51) 0.475
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, per 10 mm/h increase 1.02 (0.78, 1.27) 0.874 1.17 (0.91, 1.43) 0.206
Low C3 < 0.67 g/l 7.25 (0.86, 60.83) 0.068 1.85 (0.36, 9.41) 0.461
Low C4 < 0.13 g/l 3.04 (1.14, 8.08) 0.026 4.03 (1.25, 13.04) 0.020
Low C1q <70 mg/l 1.04 (0.36, 2.99) 0.941 0.98 (0.31, 3.12) 0.973
Glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 1.50 (0.54, 4.12) 0.437 2.77 (1.04, 7.42) 0.042
Disease duration since diagnosis, years, per 10-year increase 1.08 (0.66, 1.52) 0.712 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 0.869
History of lupus nephritis 1.02 (0.44, 2.39) 0.963 2.47 (1.01, 6.02) 0.047
SLE disease activity index 0.95 (0.87, 1.05) 0.319 0.99 (0.90, 1.09) 0.825
Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 1.11 (0.91, 1.34) 0.316 1.34 (1.08, 1.66) 0.007
Ever use of antimalarial drugs 0.30 (0.10, 0.92) 0.036 0.89 (0.27, 2.91) 0.850
Ever use of glucocorticoids 2.15 (0.53, 8.76) 0.287 1.25 (0.34, 4.63) 0.741
Total duration of glucocorticoid use, per 10-month increase 1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 0.663 1.00 (0.96, 1.06) 0.682
Total cumulative glucocorticoid dose, per 10-g increase 1.05 (0.83, 1.27) 0.688 1.12 (0.90, 1.35) 0.274
Average daily dose of glucocorticoid 1.03 (0.91, 1.16) 0.694 1.06 (0.93, 1.20) 0.420
Last year cumulative dose of glucocorticoid 0.89 (0.70, 1.13) 0.336 0.81 (0.61, 1.08) 0.148
Last year average daily dose of glucocorticoid 0.96 (0.88, 1.05) 0.336 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 0.148
  1. Values are OR with 95% CI analysed by multiple logistic regression. cIMT mean upper tertile >0.659 mm.