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Figure 1 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Figure 1

From: An update on the genetic architecture of hyperuricemia and gout

Figure 1

The uric acid transportasome. The current understanding of uric acid transport in the proximal renal tubule is presented. Carboxylates accumulate in the tubular cell through sodium-dependent monocarboxylate transporters SLC5A8 and SLC5A12 and through SLC13A3. Uric acid enters the cell in exchange for carboxylate via apical URAT1 and apical OAT4. Apical SLC2A9v2 plays a significant role in uric acid reabsorption within the collecting duct, the reabsorbed uric acid exiting the cell through basolateral SLC2A9v1 in the proximal tubule. For efflux of uric acid into the lumen, MRP4, a voltage-driven organic anion transporter (vOAT1/NPT1), and NPT4 are candidates. OAT1 and OAT3 are known to transport uric acid, although the direction of transport is not clear. PDZK1 is a scaffolding protein involved in assembly of a transporter complex in the apical membrane. Genetic variation in SLC2A9, ABCG2, URAT1, NPT1, OAT4, and PDZK1 is associated with serum urate levels and gout.

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