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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Gout and risk of chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis: meta-analysis of observational studies

First author Study period Location Source of data/study population Study type Total sample Mean age (SD) a % male Gout ascertainment Outcomes reported (method of ascertainment)
Chen [22] 2006 China Residents of Changning district of Shanghai CS 2,554 58.4 (SE 15.3) 36 Self-report Adjusted ORs for CKD any stage and CKD stage ≥3 (biochemical measurement)
Hsu [23] 1964 to 2000 USA Kaiser Permanente Northern California linked to US Renal Data System Cohort 177,570 ESRD 42.3 (10.3) ESRD 59 Self-reported physician diagnosis Univariate and multivariate HRs for ESRD requiring RRT (record linkage)
No ESRD 40.7 (14.0) No ESRD 46
Kuo [24] 2000 to 2006 Taiwan Chang Gung Memorial Hospital health screening programme CS data from cohortb 61,527 Males 49.1 (11.0) 56 Self-reported or ICD code or crystal identification Prevalence of CKD stage ≥3 (biochemical measurement)
Females 50.8 (10.8)
Fuldeore [25] 2002 to 2005 USA Managed Healthcare Database CS 3,929 CKD CKD ICD code on two occasions or ICD code plus gout medication Prevalence of CKD stage 2, 3 and 4 (biochemical measurement)
54.3 (NR) 86
No CKD No CKD
47.8 (9.0) 89
Johnson [26] 1997 to 2004 USA Kaiser Permanente North West CC 5,335 64.4 (NR) 46 ICD code or SUA ≥7 mg/dl Unadjusted and adjusted ORs for ESRD requiring RRT (medical record review)
Keenan [27] 2007 to 2008 USA New York Veterans Affairs database CS 575 71.8 (11.6) 99 ICD code Prevalence of CKD stage ≥3 (biochemical measurement or ICD code)
Yu [28] 2000 to 2008 Taiwan Taiwan National Health Insurance Database Cohort 656,108 41.1 (15.6) 73 ICD code on two occasions or ICD code plus gout medication Multivariate HR for ESRD requiring RRT (record linkage)
O’Sullivan [34] 1964 USA Population of Sudbury, Massachusetts CS 4,626 NR NR New York/Rome criteria Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (self-report, not defined)
Schaffalitzky De Muckadell [35] 1973 Denmark Male office workers aged 40 to 59 years in Copenhagen CS 312 NR 100 Self-reported physician diagnosis Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (self-report, not defined)
Currie [36] 1969 to 1975 UK General practice records CS 604 52.3 (NR) 77 GP diagnosis Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (GP diagnosis)
Currie [37] 1976 UK General practice records CS 64,454 NR NR GP diagnosis Incidence of nephrolithiasis (GP diagnosis)
Kramer [38] 1988 to 1994 USA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III CS 17,030 Stones 53.7 (0.7) 48 Self-reported physician diagnosis Prevalence and adjusted ORs for nephrolithiasis (self-reported lifetime prevalence)
No stones 44.2 (0.4)
Kramer [39] 1986 to 1998 USA Health Professionals Follow-up Study Cohort 51,529 Gout 59.9 (9.1) 100 Self-reported physician diagnosis, ARA criteria Prevalence and adjusted RRs for nephrolithiasis (self-reported lifetime prevalence)
No gout 54.4 (9.8)
Mikuls [40] 1990 to 1999 UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD) CS 207,350 Gout 60.5 (15.4) 46 GP diagnosis Prevalence, unadjusted and adjusted ORs for nephrolithiasis (medical records)
OA controls 66.8 (13.4)
Harrold [41] 1999 to 2003 USA Health Maintenance Organisations (HMO) Research Network Centre for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERT) CS 6,133 Males 58 (14) 81 ICD code on two occasions Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (ICD code)
Females 70 (12)
Padang [42] Not stated Indonesia Community Health Centres in Northern Sulawesi CS 380 NR NR ≥3 attacks of gout/year and/or tophi plus ARA criteria Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (self-report, not defined)
Sarawate [43] 1999 to 2004 USA Managed Care Database CS data from cohortb 5,942 57.4 (14.1) 76 ICD code on two occasions or ICD code plus gout medication Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (ICD code)
Solomon [44] Not stated USA US Medicare system and Pharmacy Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) CS data from cohortb 9,823 Male 78 (7) 16 Use of ULT Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (medical records)
Female 80 (7)
Harrold [45] 2000 to 2006 USA Health Maintenance Organisations (HMO) Research Network Centre for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERT) CS data from cohortb 4,166 62 (14) 75 ICD code plus use of ULT Prevalence of nephrolithiasis (ICD code)
Roddy [49] 2005 UK Registered population of two general practices in Nottingham CS 3,082 Gout 63.8 (10.6) Gout 81 Self-reported gout, validated by rheumatologist Prevalence of CKD stage ≥3, ≥4 (biochemical measurement) and nephrolithiasis (self-reported lifetime prevalence)
No gout 57.0 (14.4) No gout 41
Zhu [48] 2007 to 2008 USA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) CS 5,707 47 (NR) 48 Self-reported physician diagnosis Prevalence and adjusted OR for CKD stage ≥2, ≥3c (biochemical measurement) and nephrolithiasis (self-reported lifetime prevalence)
Liote [29] 2008 to 2009 France General Practitioner data from GOSPEL survey CS 810 62.7 (11.3) 87.2 Physician diagnosis Prevalence of CKD stage ≥3, ≥4 (biochemical measurement)
Lin [30] 2007 Taiwan Community-based survey, sampling via Household Register Database CS 3,352 47.5 (17.4) 48.6 Self-reported physician diagnosis of gout or hyperuricaemia Prevalence of CKD stage ≥3 (biochemical measurement)
Kuo [31] 2000 to 2008 Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database CS data from cohortb 704,503 42.73 (16.6) Gout 70.3, no gout 50.4 ICD code Prevalence and unadjusted OR for ESRD requiring RRT (record linkage)
Krishnan [32] 2009 to 2010 USA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey CS 5,589 44 (21) 49 Self-reported physician diagnosis Prevalence of CKD stage 2, 3, ≥4 (biochemical measurement)
Kok [33] 2003 to 2007 Taiwan Taiwan National Health Insurance Database CS data from cohortb 3,858,840 NR 48.3 ICD code on three occasions Prevalence of CKD, stages not specified (ICD code)
Trifiro [46] 2005 to 2009 Italy Health Search/Cegedim Strategic Data Longitudinal Patient Database CS 12,276 NR 74 ICD code, related keywords for free text search Prevalence and unadjusted OR for nephrolithiasis (medical records)
Scales [13] 2007 to 2010 USA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey CS 12,110 NR NR NR Adjusted OR for nephrolithiasis (self-reported lifetime prevalence)
Ando [47] 1995 to 2001 Japan Men undergoing medical examination at Gifu Prefectural Center for Health Check and Health Promotion CS 13,418 Controls 48.5 (8.8), past stones 49.7 (8.4) 100 Receiving medical treatment for gout or SUA ≥7.0 mg/dl Prevalence nephrolithiasis (self-reported lifetime prevalence)
  1. ARA, American Rheumatism Association; CC, case–control study; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CS, cross-sectional; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; GP, general practitioner; HR, hazard ratio; ICD, International Classification of Disease; NR, not reported; OA, osteoarthritis; OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk; RRT, renal replacement therapy; SD, standard deviation; SE, standard error; SUA, serum uric acid level; ULT, urate-lowering therapy. aAssumed to be SD unless otherwise stated. bCohort study reporting only cross-sectional data relevant to this review. cCKD stages clarified with authors; CSD, Cegedim Strategic Data.