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Table 2 Traditional and disease-related predictors of arterial wall thickening in patients with primary SS

From: Subclinical atherosclerosis and impaired bone health in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome: prevalence, clinical and laboratory associations

  Univariate analysis    Multivariate analysis
IMT >0.90 (n = 38) IMT ≤0.90 (n = 26) P -value Odds ratio (95% CI) P -value
Traditional risk factors      
Age, years 62.5 ± 9.2 49.8 ± 12.6 <0.001 1.1 (1.1, 1.2) 0.002
Female, % 92.1 96.2 ns   
Past medical history of CVD, % 7.9 3.8 ns   
Family history of CVD, % 13.2 15.4 ns   
Smoking, packs/year 10.5 ± 20.7 3.6 ± 7.4 ns   
Body mass index 29.0 ± 5.7 25.0 ± 4.4 0.02   
Diabetes, % 5.3 7.7 ns   
Hypertension, % 47.4 19.2 0.04   
Cholesterol levels, mg/dl 202.2 ± 35.2 183.8 ± 30.0 ns   
High-density lipoprotein, mg/dl 57.0 ± 13.9 53.5 ± 15.5 ns   
Low-density lipoprotein, mg/dl 126.8 ± 32.2 111.2 ± 25.0 0.03   
Triglycerides, mg/dl 111.5 ± 44.7 92.5 ± 38.8 ns   
Homocysteine levels, μmol/l 14.6 ± 4.6 14.2 ± 6.0 ns   
Uric acid, mg/dl 4.4 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.2 0.006   
Current steroid dose, mg 1.3 ± 2.3 1.1 ± 2.1 ns   
Total steroid dose, g 7.8 ± 17 6.6 ± 11.3 ns   
Current TSH levels, μ ΙU/dl 1.5 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.3 ns   
C-reactive protein, mg/l 3.1 ± 3.2 6.7 ± 16.0 ns   
Fibrinogen, mg/dl 416.6 ± 108.2 395.6 ± 128.1 ns   
25-hydroxy vitamin D3, ng/ml 22.3 ± 13.4 19.8 ± 7.6 ns   
Disease-related features      
Disease duration, years 8.7 ± 7.4 8.0 ± 6.6 ns   
SS disease activity index 1.8 ± 1.5 1.8 ± 1.7 ns   
Focus score, number of foci/4 mm2 2.6 ± 2.2 1.6 ± 1.4 ns   
Whole salivary flow, ml/15 minutes 2.0 ± 2.8 2.6 ± 3.1 ns   
Peri-epithelial disease, % 31.6 3.8 0.007   
Arthritis, % 23.6 46.1 ns   
Arthralgias, % 65.7 76.9 ns   
Dry mouth, % 84.2 76.9 ns   
Dry eyes, % 86.8 88.5 ns   
Salivary gland enlargement, % 21.1 15.3 ns   
Raynaud’s phenomenon, % 28.9 23.1 ns   
Lymphadenopathy, % 18.4 19.2 ns   
Splenomegaly, % 2.6 3.8 ns   
Palpable purpura, % 10.5 3.8 ns   
Monoclonal gammopathy (%) 10.5 3.8 ns   
Cryoglobulins (%) 2.6 0 ns   
Lymphoma (%) 18.4 7.6 ns   
Antinuclear antibodies >1/160, % 89.4 96.1 ns   
Anti-Ro/SSA, % 76.3 73.1 ns   
Anti-La/SSB, % 42.1 57.7 ns   
Rheumatoid factor titers, IU/ml 61.0 ± 104 58.3 ± 84.0 ns   
Complement 3, mg/ml 1.2 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 0.002   
Complement 4, mg/ml 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 ns   
Absolute number of WBC/mm3 5,647 ± 1903 5,727 ± 1785 ns   
Absolute number of lymphocytes/mm3 1,518 ± 463 1,645 ± 756 ns   
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 34 ± 21 31 ± 22 ns   
γ-globulins, % 18.5 ± 5.2 18.6 ± 3.4 ns   
Urine specific gravity 1,013 ± 6 1,018 ± 8.0 0.007   
Urine pH 6.1 ± 0.7 6.1 ± 0.6 ns   
  1. IMT, intima media thickness; SS, Sjogren’s syndrome; IMT, Intima media thickness; CVD, cardiovascular disease; TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; WBC, white blood cells; ns, not significant.