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Table 3 Traditional and disease-related predictors of plaque formation in patients with primary SS

From: Subclinical atherosclerosis and impaired bone health in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome: prevalence, clinical and laboratory associations

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Plaque (n = 44) No plaque (n = 20) P -value Odds ratio (95% CI) P -value
Traditional risk factors     
Age, years 60.1 ± 9.1 51.0 ± 16.2 0.006 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) 0.09
Female, % 93.2 95 ns   
Past medical history of CVD, % 6.8 5 ns   
Family history of CVD, % 18.2 5 ns   
Smoking, packs/year 9.1 ± 19.3 4.7 ± 9.3 ns   
Body mass index 27.6 ± 5.6 26.8 ± 5.5 ns   
Diabetes, % 9.1 0 ns   
Hypertension, % 38.6 30.0 ns   
Cholesterol levels, mg/dl 194.4 ± 33.9 194.9 ± 35.7 ns   
High-density lipoprotein, mg/dl 56.6 ± 15.1 51.2 ± 12.8 ns   
Low-density lipoprotein, mg/dl 116.1 ± 30.6 130.2 ± 27.7 ns   
Triglycerides, mg/dl 107.8 ± 43.9 93.9 ± 40.8 ns   
Homocysteine levels, μmol/l 15.3 ± 5.5 12.4 ± 3.8 ns   
Uric acid, mg/dl 4.1 ± 1.3 4.0 ± 0.9 ns   
Current steroid dose, mg 1.3 ± 2.2 1.1 ± 2.2 ns   
Total steroid dose, g 9.3 ± 17.5 3.7 ± 6.3 ns   
Current TSH levels, μ ΙU/dl 1.6 ± 1.5 1.6 ± 1.2 ns   
C-reactive protein, mg/l 3.2 ± 5.8 7.6 ± 17.0 ns   
Fibrinogen, mg/dl 410.0 ± 99.7 402.8 ± 151.2 ns   
25-hydroxy vitamin D3, ng/ml 21.1 ± 12.9 21.7 ± 7.0 ns   
Disease-related features      
Disease duration, years 8.9 ± 7.3 7.3 ± 6.6 ns   
SS disease activity index 1.7 ± 1.5 2.1 ± 1.8 ns   
Focus score, number of foci/4 mm2 2.7 ± 1.9 1.2 ± 1.4 0.04   
Whole salivary flow, ml/15 minutes 1.9 ± 2.8 3.0 ± 3.2 0.04   
Peri-epithelial disease, % 22.7 15.0 ns   
Arthritis, % 29.5 40.0 ns   
Arthralgias, % 68.2 75.0 ns   
Dry mouth, % 84.1 75.0 ns   
Dry eyes, % 90.9 80.0 ns   
Salivary gland enlargement, % 11.4 20 ns   
Raynaud’s phenomenon, % 34.1 10.0 0.04   
Lymphadenopathy, % 18.2 20.0 ns   
Splenomegaly, % 2.3 5 ns   
Palpable purpura, % 9.1 5 ns   
Cryoglobulins (%) 2.3 0 ns   
Lymphoma (%) 13.6 15.0 ns   
Antinuclear antibodies >1/160, % 86.4 95 ns   
Anti-Ro/SSA, % 72.7 75 ns   
Anti-La/SSB, % 47.7 50.0 ns   
Rheumatoid factor titers, IU/ml 53.7 ± 88.7 72.5 ± 108.6 ns   
Complement 3, mg/ml 1.1 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.3 ns   
Complement 4, mg/ml 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 ns   
Absolute number of WBC/mm3 5,533 ± 1968 6,006 ± 1516 ns   
Absolute number of lymphocytes/mm3 1,411 ± 476 1,924 ± 705 0.001 0.9 (0.9, 1.0) 0.02
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 33 ± 21 31 ± 21 ns   
γ-globulins, % 18.3 ± 5.1 19.0 ± 2.7 ns   
Urine specific gravity 1,014 ± 6 1,016 ± 9 ns   
Urine pH 6.1 ± 0.7 6.1 ± 0.5 ns   
  1. IMT, intima media thickness; SS, Sjogren’s syndrome; IMT, Intima media thickness; CVD, cardiovascular disease; TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; WBC, white blood cells; ns, not significant.