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Table 2 The associations between lower levels of physical activity and paraspinal muscle properties

From: Physical inactivity is associated with narrower lumbar intervertebral discs, high fat content of paraspinal muscles and low back pain and disability

Risk of high fat content
  Univariate P Multivariate P
  OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI) 1  
Multifidus 2.8 (1.3, 6.3) 0.01 2.7 (1.1, 6.7) 0.04
Erector spinae 2.7 (1.0, 7.1) 0.04 2.2 (0.7, 6.9) 0.16
Cross-sectional area (cm 2 )
  Univariate P Multivariate P
  β (95% CI)   β (95% CI) 2  
Multifidus 0.15 (−0.43, 0.73) 0.61 0.09 (−0.48, 0.66) 0.76
Erector spinae −1.01 (−2.53, 0.50) 0.19 −0.58 (−2.07, 0.91) 0.44
  1. 1Risk of fat infiltration adjusted for age, gender, and BMI; 2cross-sectional area adjusted for age, gender, BMI and fat content. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index.