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Table 2 Odds ratio for disease development of anti-CCP2 antibodies and different ACPA prior to symptoms of RA (pre-RA), ≤10.5 years prior to symptoms, and at diagnosis in combination with HLA-SE allele (none/any), smoking (never/ever)

From: Associations of antibodies against citrullinated peptides with human leukocyte antigen-shared epitope and smoking prior to the development of rheumatoid arthritis

   Pre-RA (ever-pos) Pre-RA (≤10.5 years) RA
(n = 348) (n = 277) (n = 196)
HLA-SE Smoking OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Anti-CCP2     
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.36 (0.57–3.22) 1.81 (0.81–4.00) 1.06 (0.36–3.14)
None Ever 1.50 (0.64–3.53) 1.41 (0.62–3.22) 1.02 (0.36–2.88)
Any Ever 2.36 (1.08–5.17) 3.96 (1.87–8.39) 4.23 (1.42–12.59)
Anti-CEP-1/Eno5-21    
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.40 (0.56–3.55) 1.08 (0.46–2.55) 1.44 (0.51–4.03)
None Ever 1.38 (0.55–3.48) 1.38 (0.59–3.27) 1.92 (0.70–5.26)
Any Ever 2.25 (0.97–5.23) 2.85 (1.30–6.24) 6.59 (2.42–17.99)
Anti-CitC1359-369     
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.20 (0.29–4.92) 1.74 (0.47–6.54) 3.88 (0.44–34.48)
None Ever 2.00 (0.52–7.64) 2.28 (0.61–8.47) 14.93 (1.85–120.33)
Any Ever 2.59 (0.74–9.07) 4.05 (1.19–13.82) 14.67 (1.89–113.98)
Anti-Fibα580-600 (591)
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.31 (0.38–4.47) 1.57 (0.41–5.96) 0.17 (0.02–1.75)
None Ever 0.61 (0.15–2.40) 0.88 (0.20–3.83) 1.37 (0.33–5.73)
Any Ever 0.69 (0.20–2.26) 1.39 (0.38–5.07) 1.32 (0.34–5.03)
Anti-Fibα563-583 (573)
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.61 (0.31–8.34) 1.89 (0.39–9.21) 2.22 (0.54–9.09)
None Ever 2.79 (0.58–13.42) 3.16 (0.67–14.84) 3.13 (0.80–12.17)
Any Ever 3.09 (0.69–13.79) 3.42 (0.77–15.17) 5.14 (1.42–18.61)
Anti-Fibβ62-81a (72)
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 4.98 (1.09–22.90) 4.90 (0.61–39.36) 2.44 (0.26–23.30)
None Ever 1.58 (0.31–8.23) 3.33 (0.39–28.40) 1.50 (0.15–15.27)
Any Ever 2.76 (0.61–12.36) 6.99 (0.91–53.38) 5.91 (0.75–46.86)
Anti-Fibβ62-81b (74)     
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 2.00 (0.52–7.64) 7.14 (0.91–55.83) 2.53 (0.63–10.23)
None Ever 2.00 (0.52–7.64) 6.45 (0.81–51.41) 2.55 (0.65–10.05)
Any Ever 3.52 (1.02–12.20) 16.73 (2.24–124.88) 5.93 (1.64–21.44)
Anti-Fibβ36-52     
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.20 (0.50–2.86) 1.45 (0.58–3.67) 0.85 (0.30–2.39)
None Ever 1.18 (0.49–2.81) 1.65 (0.65–4.20) 0.80 (0.29–2.19)
Any Ever 1.64 (0.74–3.61) 3.64 (1.54–8.57) 3.08 (1.15–8.21)
Anti-CCP-1/Fil307-324     
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.81 (0.73–4.51) 3.67 (1.34–10.06) 0.66 (0.23–1.85)
None Ever 1.20 (0.47–3.06) 1.97 (0.68–5.69) 0.51 (0.18–1.42)
Any Ever 1.77 (0.76–4–14) 4.05 (1.52–10.79) 1.42 (0.56–3.56)
Anti-Vim60−75     
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.42 (0.47–4.32) 6.56 (0.84–51.59) 2.53 (0.63–10.23)
None Ever 0.58 (0.17–2.04) 2.74 (0.31–24.11) 1.17 (0.27–5.00)
Any Ever 1.02 (0.35–2.91) 6.20 (0.81–47.64) 4.67 (1.2916.92)
Anti-Vim2-17     
None Never 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
Any Never 1.04 (0.09–11.83) 2.34 (0.27–20.54) 1.41 (0.33–6.10)
None Ever 2.67 (0.30–23.68) 2.17 (0.24–19.94) 0.62 (0.13–3.04)
Any Ever 4.99 (0.64–38.65) 6.20 (0.81–47.64) 0.69 (0.17–2.85)
  1. Significant associations presented in bold. HLA-SE= HLA shared epitope, OR= odds ratio, CI= confidence intervals, anti-CCP2=anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, anti CEP-1/Eno5-21= antibodies against α-Enolase, anti-citC1359-369= antibodies against collagen type II aa 359-369 with two citrulline residues, anti- Fibα580-600=antibodies against fibrinogen (Fib) Fibα580-600, anti-Fibα561-583= antibodies against Fibα561-583, anti- Fibβ62-81a(72)=antibodies against Fibβ62-81a(72), anti-Fibβ62-81b(74)= antibodies against Fibβ62-81b(74), anti-Fibβ36-52= antibodies against Fibβ36-52, anti- CCP-1/Fil307-324= antibodies against filaggrin, anti- Vim60-75= antibodies against vimentin (Vim)60-75, anti-Vim2-17= antibodies against Vim 2-17.