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Table 2 Cox regression analysis results for gout and covariates on dementia

From: Gout and the risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based cohort study

  Alzheimer's disease Vascular dementia Non-vascular dementia All kinds of dementia
  Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
 Gout 0.74** (0.60, 0.91) 0.75* (0.61, 0.94) 0.83* (0.71, 0.96) 0.76** (0.65, 0.88) 0.79** (0.74, 0.85) 0.77** (0.72, 0.83) 0.79** (0.75, 0.85) 0.77** (0.72, 0.82)
 Untreated gout 0.88 (0.62, 1.24) 0.89 (0.62,1.27) 0.92 (0.71, 1.19) 0.88 (0.86, 1.11) 0.97 (0.87, 1.09) 0.95 (0.85, 1.07) 0.96 (0.87, 1.07) 0.963 (0.84, 1.03)
 Treated gout 0.67** (0.52, 0.88) 0.68** (0.52, 0.89) 0.79* (0.66, 0.95) 0.73** (0.60,0.88) 0.71** (0.65, 0.78) 0.69** (0.68, 0.75) 0.72** (0.67, 0.78) 0.69** (0.64, 0.75)
Other covariates         
 Age 1.11** (1.10, 1.12) 1.11** (1.10, 1.12) 1.11** (1.10, 1.11) 1.10** (1.09, 1.10) 1.12** (1.11, 1.12) 1.11** (1.11, 1.12) 1.12** (1.11, 1.12) 1.11** (1.11, 1.11)
 Male sex 0.75** (0.64, 0.88) 0.84* (0.71, 0.98) 1.11 (0.98, 1.25) 1.27** (1.13, 1.44) 0.86** (0.81, 0.90) 0.94* (0.89, 0.99) 0.89** (0.85, 0.94) 0.99 (0.94, 1.04)
 Diabetes mellitus 1.29* (1.06, 1.58) 1.18 (0.96, 1.46) 1.87** (1.64, 2.13) 1.45** (1.26, 1.67) 1.50** (1.41, 1.59) 1.30** (1.23, 1.40) 1.56** (1.47, 1.65) 1.33** (1.25, 1.40)
 Hypertension 1.44** (1.23, 1.69) 0.93 (0.78, 1.11) 2.30** (2.05, 2.57) 1.33** (1.16, 1.51) 1.67** (1.58, 1.75) 0.99 (0.93, 1.04) 1.76** (1.68, 1.84) 1.03 (0.98, 1.09)
 Hyperlipidemia 0.93 (0.71, 1.20) 0.98 (0.74, 1.29) 1.15 (0.96, 1.37) 0.98 (0.81, 1.18) 0.91* (0.84, 1.00) 0.89* (0.81, 0.97) 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) 0.90* (0.83, 0.97)
 Heart failure 1.56* (1.04, 2.33) 0.79 (0.52, 1.20) 2.50** (1.97, 3.18) 1.13 (0.88, 1.45) 2.17** (1.93, 2.42) 0.98 (0.87, 1.10) 2.22** (2.00, 2.45) 1.00 (0.90, 1.12)
 Coronary artery disease 1.64** (1.35, 2.00) 1.10 (0.88, 1.37) 2.05** (1.80, 2.35) 1.11 (0.96, 1.30) 1.74** (1.63, 1.86) 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 1.79** (1.68, 1.89) 1.04 (0.97, 1.10)
 COPD 1.10 (0.90, 1.36) 0.67* (0.50, 0.87) 1..43** (1.24, 1.65) 0.82* (0.69, 0.98) 1.60** (1.50, 1.70) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10) 1.55** (1.47, 1.64) 0.97 (0.90, 1.04)
 Asthma 1.28 (0.94, 1.73) 1.32 (0.90, 1.95) 1.32 (1.06, 1.65) 1.01 (0.78, 1.32) 1.44** (1.31, 1.59) 0.98 (0.88, 1.10) 1.41** (1.29, 1.54) 0.99 (0.89, 1.10)
 Stroke 2.10** (1.6, 2.80) 1.16 (0.86, 1.57) 6.05** (5.24, 7.00) 2.98** (2.55, 3.49) 3.09** (2.85, 3.35) 1.55** (1.42, 1.69) 3.59** (3.234, 3.86) 1.80** (1.67, 1.95)
 Malignancy 1.55* (1.09, 2.19) 1.18 (0.83, 1.67) 1.26 (0.96, 1.67) 0.85 (0.64, 1.12) 1.45** (1.29, 1.63) 1.00 (0.89, 1.13) 1.41** (1.27, 1.57) 0.96 (0.87, 1.07)
 Chronic kidney disease 0.93 (0.62, 1.41) 0.73 (0.49, 1.11) 1.44** (1.13, 1.85) 0.95 (0.73, 1.22) 1.61** (1.45, 1.79) 1.17** (1.05, 1.30) 1.53** (1.43, 1.73) 1.12* (1.01, 1.23)
 Arrhythmia 1.61** (1.27, 2.04) 1.16 (0.90, 1.50) 1.57** (1.31, 1.87) 0.91 (0.75, 1.10) 1.59** (1.47, 1.72) 1.01 (0.92, 1.10) 1.57** (1.47, 1.69) 0.98 (0.90, 1.06)
 Parkinson's disease 4.81** (3.25, 7.12) 2.24** (1.50, 3.35) 6.45** (5.00, 8.32) 2.24** (1.72, 2.91) 6.76** (6.02, 7.59) 2.76** (2.45, 3.11) 6.94** (6.25, 7.71) 2.75** (2.47, 3.07)
  1. These are the results of unadjusted univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. In adjusted analysis, all covariates listed in the table were entered into the model. No gout was the reference group for gout, treated gout and untreated gout groups. *P <0.05, **: P <0.01. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.