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Table 1 Pattern recognition receptors associated with rheumatic disease

From: Pattern recognition receptors as potential therapeutic targets in inflammatory rheumatic disease

   Pattern recognition receptor ligand(s) Association with rheumatic
Receptor Localization PAMPs DAMPs disease
TLR2 Cell surface Lipoproteins Gp96 RA [37], OA [50]
Peptidoglycan Hyaluronan
Zymosan HMGB1
TLR3 Endosome dsRNA DNA RA [24,30-32], OA [56]
TLR4 Cell surface LPS HSP70 RA [20,32,92], OA [42,43,48,50]
Envelope glycoproteins HMGB1
Mannan Hyaluronan
TLR5 Cell surface Flagellin   RA [34]
TLR7/8 Endosome ssRNA ssRNA RA [25-27], SLE [93,94]
TLR9 Endosome CpG DNA DNA OA [57], SLE [95]
NOD1 Cytoplasm Diaminopimelic acid   RA [39]
NLRP3 Cytoplasm RNA, DNA, MDP ATP Gout [3], RA [40], OA [59,60]
HA/uric acid crystals
  1. Some examples of both exogenous (PAMPs) and endogenous (DAMPs) ligands are shown for each receptor. DAMP, danger-associated molecular pattern; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; HA, hyaluronic acid; HMGB-1, high mobility group box-1; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; HSP70, heat shock protein-70; MDP, muramyl dipeptide; NLR, NOD-like receptor; NOD, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain; OA, osteoarthritis; PAMP, pattern-associated molecular pattern; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SNAPIN, SNAP-associated protein; ssRNA, single-stranded RNA; TLR, Toll-like receptor.