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Table 2 Candidate biomarkers of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis

From: Early biomarkers of joint damage in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis

Candidate biomarker Evidence for role in inflammatory arthritis Use
Inflammatory proteins  
C-reactive protein Opsonisation and compliment activation RA
Calprotectin (S100A12) Ca2+ binding protein released upon phagocyte activation, important intracellular and extracellular roles RA/PsA
Calgranulin (S100A8/S100A9) Ca2+ binding protein with pleotropic effects. Regulates myeloid derived cells PsA
A-SAA Promotes the production of MMPs RA/PsA
Cytokines   
IL-1 Promotes activation of keratocytes, endothelial cells, chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Promotes the production of proinflammatory cytokines PsA
IL-6 Promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines, induces an acute phase response RA
IL-13 Promotes antibody production by B cells RA
IL-15 Induces T cell proliferation and B cell differentiation. Recruits memory T cells to the synovium and induces TNFα production PsA
IL-16 Promotes chemotaxis of CD4+ T cells, monocytes and eosinophils. Modulates T-cell activation RA
IL-22 Induces proliferation of fibroblasts and production of MCP-1 (monocyte chemokine) RA
IL-33 Promotes chronic inflammatory response RA
Chemokines   
CCL3 Lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil chemoattractant PsA
CCL11 Eosinophil chemoattractant PsA
CXCL13 B-cell chemoattractant RA
Adipokines   
Adiponectin Induces IL-6 and MMP-1 production by SLFs. Promotes IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 production in chondrocytes RA
Visfatin Role unclear, thought to modulate inflammation RA
Markers of angiogenesis  
VEGF Potent inducer of angiogenesis and vascular permeability RA/PsA
Angiopotietin-1 Promotes angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels) RA
Angiopotietin-2 Promotes angiogenesis PsA
Auto-antibodies   
Rheumatoid factor Forms immune complexes, promotes complement activation and formation of rheumatoid nodules RA
Anti-CCP Promotes complement activation RA
Anti-Carp Bind homocitrulline containing proteins RA
Enzyme mediators of destruction  
MMP-1 Degrades collagen RA
MMP-3 Degrades collagen RA
Regulators of bone remodelling  
RANKL Induces osteoclast bone destruction PsA
M-CSF Induces aggressive phenotype in macrophages PsA
Products of collagen degradation  
COMP Cartilage oligomatrix protein RA
CTXI C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I RA
CTXII C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I RA
C1,2C Collagen type II degradation product RA
C2C Collagen type II degradation product RA
  1. Candidate biomarkers predictive of joint damage in RA and PsA have been identified in the literature. These include inflammatory proteins, cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, markers of angiogenesis, auto-antibodies, enzyme mediators of destruction, molecules that regulate bone turnover and products of collagen degradation. For references see text. A-SAA acute-phase serum amyloid A; anti-Carp, anti-carbamylated protein antibodies; CCL, chemokine ligand; CCP, cyclic citrullinated peptide; CXCL, chemokine (C-X-C) motif ligand; IL, interleukin; M-CSF, macrophage colony stimulating factor; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; SLF, synovium-like fibroblasts; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor alpha; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor