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Table 5 Results from the best evidence synthesis: associations with clinical knee OA progression

From: Prognostic factors for progression of clinical osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review of observational studies

Determinants Level of evidence
Age, ethnicity, BMI, co morbidity count, MRI-detected infrapatellar synovitis, joint effusion and baseline OA severity (radiographic and clinical) Strong evidence for association
Education level, vitality, pain coping subscale resting, MRI-detected medial femorotibial cartilage loss and general BMLs Moderate evidence for association
Pain coping subscales worrying, hoping and catastrophizing, knee injury, knee surgery, bisphosphonate usage, painful knee flexion, flexion contracture, knee ROM, medial BMLs, medial subchondral bone cysts and medial trabecular bone texture Limited evidence for association
Knee compression force, pain coping subscale distraction, morning stiffness, pain medication usage, glucosamine or chondroitin usage, hip replacement surgery, joint line tenderness, muscle strength, lateral BMLs, lateral subchondral bone cysts, lateral femorotibial cartilage loss, meniscal extrusion or damage, anterior cruciate ligament tear, intercondylar or suprapatellar synovitis on MRI, synovitis on US, lateral trabecular bone texture serum markers C2C and COMP Limited evidence for no association
Gender, mental health, bisphosphonate usage, joint line tenderness, quadriceps strength, MRI-detected whole knee cartilage loss and synovial marker ARGS Conflicting evidence
Bodyweight change Inconclusive evidence
ARGS aggrecan neoepitope amino acid sequence, BMI body mass index, BML, bone marrow lesion, C2C collagen type-II cleavage, COMP cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, OA osteoarthritis, ROM range of motion, US ultrasonography