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Table 2 Comparison between no pulmonary hypertension and manifest pulmonary hypertension group

From: Stress Doppler echocardiography for early detection of systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

Diagnosis   No PH Manifest PH  
   mPAP < 25 mm Hg mPAP ≥ 25 mm Hg  
   n = 54   n = 22   
   Mean SD Mean SD P value
Patient characteristics Age, years 54.0 14.4 67.6 8.8 <0.001
  Height, cm 167.3 7.8 162.1 8.1 0.02
  Weight, kg 70.0 16.0 66.0 10.5 n.s.
  Body surface area, m2 1.77 0.2 1.7 0.2 n.s.
  Duration of SSc, years 10.7 9.9 15.6 14.4 n.s.
  Beginning of SSc, years 44.5 15.0 52.4 16.0 0.04
  Modified Rodnan Skin Score 13.3 8.5 18.4 11.4 0.04
  6MWD, m 466 77 349 86 <0.001
  Borg Dyspnoea 20 13 2 15 2 0.003
WHO FC 0-I 17 (31.5 %)   0   
  II 26 (48.1 %)   5 (22.7 %)
III 10 (18.5 %)   17 (77.3 %)
Unknown 1 (1.9 %)   0
Laboratory NT-proBNP, pg/mL 290 424 846 773.0 0.02
Blood gas analysis Oxygen saturation, % 96.8 2.1 94.6 3.4 0.01
Lung function Vital capacity, % 95.8 24.2 88.2 29.9 n.s.
  FEV1, % 108.0 93.7 83.7 26.9 n.s.
  Total lung capacity, % 95.5 21.4 83.8 23.2 0.042
  Residual volume, % 2.0 0.8 1.9 0.6 n.s.
Diffusion capacity Diffusion capacity carbon monoxide, % 55.7 13.5 42.1 12.5 <0.001
Echocardio- RV thickness, mm 6.5 1.2 7.6 1.4 0.01
graphy TAPSE, mm 24.0 3.5 20.6 4.0 0.001
  RA area, cm2 11.4 3.3 15.5 5.7 <0.001
  RV area, cm2 14.6 3.7 17.7 4.2 0.003
  TRV, m/s 2.3 0.4 3.4 0.6 <0.001
  PASP, mm Hg 25.6 7.3 52.0 18.0 <0.001
  PASP max (exercise), mm Hg 49.9 12.7 83.9 18.9 <0.001
Right heart RAP/CVP, mm Hg 3.8 2.6 6.3 4.5 0.02
catheterisation mPAP, mm Hg 14.8 3.4 32.6 7.5 <0.001
at rest PAWP, mm Hg 7.2 3.2 12.4 6.0 0.001
  Cardiac output, ml/min 5.6 1.3 5.1 1.0 n.s.
  Cardiac index, l/min per m2 3.1 0.6 2.9 0.5 n.s.
  PVR, dynes*s/cm5 114 40 339 199 <0.001
During exercise mPAP max, mm Hg 31 7 50 7 <0.001
  PAWP max, mm Hg 17 6 21 9 n.s.
  Cardiac output max, l/min 11.5 3.4 8.3 2.9 <0.001
  PVR max, dynes*s/cm5 96 42 323 207 <0.001
  1. PH pulmonary hypertension, mPAP mean pulmonary arterial pressure, SD standard deviation, SSc systemic sclerosis, 6MWD 6-minute walking distance, WHO FC World Health Organization functional class, NT-proBNP N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, n.s. not significant, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second, RV right ventricle, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RA right atrium, TRV tricuspid regurgitation velocity, PASP systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, RAP right atrial pressure, CVP central venous pressure, PAWP pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, PVR pulmonary vascular resistance
  2. P values are based on two-sided, unpaired Student’s t tests and Mann-Whitney U test for Borg Dyspnoea Scale score. For Borg Dyspnoea Scale score, median values equal means. Values are mean±SD. For the category of NT-proBNP, values were missing for 14 patients in the mPAP < 25 mm Hg and eight patients in the mPAP ≥ 25 mm Hg group. For the category of RV thickness, values were missing for seven patients for each group. For the categories of RA area, RV area, and TRV, values for one patient were missing in the mPAP < 25 mm Hg group. For the category of PASP, values were missing for three patients in the mPAP < 25 mm Hg group. For the category of PASP max (exercise), values were missing for three patients in the mPAP < 25 mm Hg group. For the categories of cardiac index, mPAP max, PWAP max, cardiac output max, and cardiac index max, values for one patient was missing for each group, respectively