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Table 4 Incidence of giant cell arteritis and population HLA-DRB1 allele frequencies in different countries

From: Association of HLA-DRB1 amino acid residues with giant cell arteritis: genetic association study, meta-analysis and geo-epidemiological investigation

GCA incidence study HLA-DRB1 allele frequency and references (if multiple references given, the allele frequency is the weighted mean)
City/region, country, reference Dates, study design GCA criteria GCA incidence, per 100,000 per year in over-50s Latitude (degrees N) *04 *01 *15 *04:01 *04:04
W Nyland, Finland [49] 1987-88, prospective Biopsy, clinical 26.2 61.5 0.147 (n = 1157 [50]) 0.183 (n = 1157 [50]) 0.144 (n = 1157 [50]) 0.080 (n = 1157 [50]) 0.037 (n = 1157 [50])
Goteborg, Sweden [51] 1976-95, retrospective Biopsy, clinical 22.2 57.7 0.195 (n = 1347 [22], 1366 [52], 1209 [53], 1191 [54]) 0.105 (n = 1347 [22], 1366 [52], 1209 [53], 1191 [54]) 0.159 (n = 1347 [22], 1366 [52], 1209 [53], 1191 [54]) 0.137 (n = 934 [55], 1763 [56], 1191 [54]) 0.057 (n = 934 [55], 1763 [56], 1191 [54])
Reggio Emilia, Italy [57] 1980-88, retrospective Biopsy 6.9 44.7 0.072 (n = 57,345 [58], 4080 [22], 2054 [22], 1992 [59]) 0.089 (n = 57,345 [58], 4080 [22], 2054 [22], 1992 [59]) 0.068 (n = 57,345 [58], 2054 [22], 1992 [59]) 0.017 (n = 57,345 [58]) 0.012 (n = 57345 [58])
Lugo, NW Spain [60] 1981-98, retrospective Biopsy 10.2 43.0 0.129 (n = 1940 [61], 1088 [62]) 0.103 (n = 1940 [61], 1088 [62]) 0.104 (n = 1940 [61], 1088 [62]) 0.053 (n = 145 [22]) 0.0207 (n = 145 [22])
Denmark [63] 1982-94, prospective Biopsy 20.4 56.5 0.180 (n = 562 [64]) 0.101 (n = 562 [64]) 0.157 (n = 562 [64]) 0.176 (n = 55 [22]) 0.001 (n = 55 [22])
Iceland [65] 1984-90, retrospective ACR 1990 criteria 27.0 64.7 0.170 (n = 172 [66]) 0.040 (n = 172 [66]) 0.020 (n = 172 [66]) No data No data
Alesund and Bodo, Norway [67] 1992-6, retrospective, hospital Biopsy/ACR 1990 criteria 32.4 64.9 0.225 (n = 576 [22], 630 [68], 368 [69], 898 [55]) 0.117 (n = 576 [22], 630 [68], 898 [55]) 0.153 (n = 576 [22], 630 [68], 368 [69], 898 [55]) 0.117 (n = 898 [55]) 0.067 (n = 898 [55])
Schleswig Holstein, North Germany [70] 1998-2002, prospective, population Chapel Hill consensus criteria 3.2 54.2 0.140 (n = 11,407 [22], 8862 [22], 4251 [71]) 0.111 (n = 11,407 [22], 8862 [22], 4251 [71]) 0.141 (n = 11,407 [22], 8862 [22], 4251 [71]) 0.081 (n = 8862 [22]) 0.024 (n = 8862 [22])
Vilnius, Lithuania [72] 1990-9, prospective, hospital ACR 1990 criteria 0.7 54.7 0.078 (n = 134 [73]) 0.111 (n = 134 [73]) No data No data No data
Jerusalem [74] 1980-2004, retrospective Biopsy + ACR 1990 criteria 11.3 31.8 0.170 (n = 23000 [22]) 0.083 (n = 23,000 [22]) 0.070 (n = 23,000 [22]) 0.019 (n = 132 [75]) 0.015 (n = 132 [75])
Sephardic Jews, Israel [76] 1980-91, retrospective Biopsy 10.2 31.8 0.112 (n = 293 [77]) 0.038 (n = 293 [77]) 0.087 (n = 293 [77]) 0.000 (n = 293 [77]) 0.009 (n = 293 [77])
UK [28] 1990-2001, prospective Clinical 22.0 51.5 0.204 (n = 39,979 [22], 1238 [78]) 0.110 (n = 39,979 [22], 1238 [78]) 0.143 (n = 39,979 [22], 1238 [78]) 0.116 (n = 298 [22]) 0.047 (n = 298 [22])
Erdirne, Turkey [79] 2003-9, retrospective Clinical 1.1 41.7 0.128 (n = 250 [22], 253 [80], 250 [81]) 0.047 (n = 250 [22], 253 [80], 250 [81]) 0.082 (n = 250 [22], 253 [80], 250 [81]) 0.014 (n = 110 [82], 250 [81]) 0.019 (n = 110 [82], 250 [81])
Olmsted County, MN, USA [83] 2000-2004, prospective, population ACR 1990 18.9 44.0 0.156 (n = 339 [22]) 0.097 (n = 339 [22]) 0.124 (n = 339 [22]) 0.091 (n = 339 [22]) 0.040 (n = 339 [22])
White, Memphis, TN, USA [84] 1971-1980, retrospective Biopsy/clinical 2.2 35.2 0.156 (n = 61,655 [22]) 0.110 (n = 61,655 [22]) 0.133 (n = 61,655 [22]) 0.091 (n = 61,655 [22]) 0.031 (n = 61,655 [22])
Black, Memphis, TN, USA [84] 1971-1980, retrospective Biopsy/clinical 0.4 35.2 0.060 (n = 34 [85]) No data 0.210 (n = 34 [85]) No data No data
Europeans, Saskatoon, Canada [86] 1998-2003, prospective Biopsy 9.3 52.1 0.178 (n = 415 [87]) 0.092 (n = 415 [87]) 0.147 (n = 415 [87]) 0.097 (n = 216 [88]) 0.051 (n = 216 [88])
  1. ACR American College of Rheumatology
  2. Giant cell arteritis (GCA) incidence in Finland was taken as weighted mean of the two sub-studies reported in the article cited. Allele frequencies are the weighted mean of the allele frequencies reported in the studies cited (see Methods for details of how these were selected). For brevity, where the data were taken from the allelefrequencies.net website, the main citation for the website is given [22]; searching allelefrequencies.net on the country, sample size, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele in question will give the allele frequencies used in this table