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Table 2 Relationship between selected potential aetiological determinants of interest and symptomatic midfoot OA

From: The epidemiology of symptomatic midfoot osteoarthritis in community-dwelling older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

  Total N SMOA N Crude OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI)
Body mass index (kg/m2)     
 Non-obese <30 286 49 1 1
 Obese ≥30 235 69 2.01 (1.33, 3.05) 2.02 (1.32, 3.08)a
Self-reported previous injury to either foot or ankle     
 No 166 29 1 1
 Yes 359 90 1.58 (0.99, 2.52) 1.60 (0.98, 2.60)b
Self-reported frequency of use of high-heeled footwearc     
 Low 78 18 1 1
 High 211 47 0.96 (0.51, 1.77) 0.98 (0.51, 1.88)d
Nodal IPJ OAe     
 No 402 85 1 1
 Yes 123 34 1.42 (0.90, 2.26) 1.32 (0.80, 2.16)b
  1. Based on complete case clinic data
  2. OA osteoarthritis, SMOA symptomatic midfoot osteoarthritis, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IPJ interphalangeal joint
  3. aEstimate adjusted for age and gender
  4. bEstimate adjusted for age, gender and body mass index
  5. cExamination was restricted to females and the exposure was defined as previous footwear (low- versus high-heeled shoes) worn on most days for at least one 10-year period between 20 and 49 years old
  6. dEstimate adjusted for age and body mass index
  7. eNodal interphalangeal joint (IPJ) OA defined as Kellgren and Lawrence ≥2 in ≥2 IPJs (digits 2–5), and the presence of ≥2 Heberden or Bouchard nodes (digits 2–5) across either hand [25]