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Fig. 3 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: In vivo pre-activation of monocytes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis

Fig. 3

a Elevated spontaneous production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) by monocytes of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The percentage of IL-1ra-producing monocytes among CD68+ monocytes was determined as in Fig. 2. The percentage of cytokine-positive cells (individual measurement and median) in response to the different stimuli in controls (C) (n = 26), patients with axSpA (SpA) (n = 42), and patients with RA (RA) (n = 8) is given. **P < 0.01 (Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s post test). Whole blood of patients with axSpA (SpA) (n = 26) and controls (C) (n = 13) was stimulated without or with indicated stimulators for 18 h. b IL-10 was measured in the supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. *P < 0.05 (Mann–Whitney U test). FSL fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptid-1, LPS lipopolysaccharide, MDP muramyl dipeptide, PAM PAM3CSK4, w/o without

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