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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of 25(OH)D deficiency (25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml) in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases

From: Vitamin D deficiency in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: results of the cardiovascular in rheumatology [CARMA] study

  All Rheumatoid arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Psoriatic arthritis
Variables Crude OR Adjusted OR p Crude OR Adjusted OR p Crude OR Adjusted OR p Crude OR Adjusted OR p
(95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Kind of disease (ref. controls)             
Rheumatoid arthritis 2.07 (1.53, 2.79) 1.46 (1.09, 1.96) 0.012 -- --   -- --   -- --  
Ankylosing spondylitis 2.00 (1.46, 2.74) 1.23 (0.85, 1.80) 0.273 -- --   -- --   -- --  
Psoriatic arthritis 2.03 (1.46, 2.81) 1.32 (0.94, 1.84) 0.110 -- --   -- --   -- --  
Age beginning disease 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.985 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.99 (0.98, 1.01) 0.324 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 0.715 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 0.688
Sex (ref. male) 0.86 (0.74, 0.99) 1.06 (0.88, 1.27) 0.561 0.60 (0.43, 0.85) 0.64 (0.42, 0.97) 0.037 1.46 (1.07, 1.99) 1.54 (1.10, 2.17) 0.013 0.82 (0.61, 1.10) 0.95 (0.66, 1.37) 0.781
Disease duration, years 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.894 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 0.971 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 0.841 0.998 (0.980, 1.015) 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 0.581
Educational level (ref. elementary)             
University/secondary 0.86 (0.67, 1.11) 0.99 (0.77, 1.29) 0.963 1.02 (0.71, 1.45) 1.17 (0.69, 1.72) 0.430 0.76 (0.52, 1.10) 0.81 (0.55, 1.19) 0.280 1.00 (0.67, 1.50) 0.94 (0.62, 1.41) 0.765
Smoking status (ref. current smokers)             
Past smokers 0.90 (0.74, 1.10) 0.91 (0.73, 1.13) 0.387 0.86 (0.58, 1.26) 0.80 (0.49, 1.29) 0.354 0.94 (0.62, 1.41) 1.11 (0.72, 1.70) 0.639 1.20 (0.77, 1.88) 1.20 (0.72, 1.99) 0.480
Never smokers 0.70 (0.57, 0.86) 0.73 (0.58, 0.91) 0.005 0.72 (0.51, 1.02) 0.74 (0.50, 1.11) 0.144 0.81 (0.53, 1.22) 0.84 (0.56, 1.26) 0.404 1.04 (0.66, 1.64) 1.12 (0.67, 1.87) 0.662
Obesity (BMI ≥30. kg/m2) 1.60 (1.32, 1.94) 1.96 (1.28, 1.90) <0.001 1.54 (1.09, 2.17) 1.76 (1.18, 2.62) 0.006 1.39 (0.93, 2.09) 1.20 (0.78, 1.86) 0.408 1.47 (1.04, 2.09) 1.41 (0.98, 2.05) 0.067
Sunshine hours/month* 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) <0.001 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) 0.001 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) 0.001 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99) <0.001
HAQ (0–3)     0.86 (0.69, 1.07) 0.90 (0.71, 1.14) 0.384 -- --   -- --  
ACPA-positive -- --   1.45 (1.00, 2.09) 1.45 (0.99, 2.12) 0.056 -- --   -- --  
HLA-B27 -- --   -- --   0.68 (0.50, 0.92) 0.70 (0.48, 1.02) 0.062 -- --  
BASFI (0–10) -- --   -- --   1.10 (1.02, 1.18) 1.08 (0.99, 1.17) 0.070 -- --  
Vitamin D therapy 0.60 (0.47, 0.77) 0.57 (0.43, 0.76) <0.001 0.69 (0.48, 0.99) 0.78 (0.52, 1.18) 0.245 0.46 (0.26, 0.81) 0.43 (0.26, 0.81) 0.008 0.48 (0.28, 0.82) 0.54 (0.29, 1.01) 0.053
  1. *Hours of sunshine per month considering the period of time between 60 and 90 days prior to the baseline visit (blood test to determine the levels of 25(OH)D was performed at the baseline visit). 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, OR odds ratio, BMI body mass index, HAQ (0–3): health assessment questionnaire, ACPA anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27, BASFI (0–10) Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index