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Table 5 The summary subchondral bone associations with joint replacement, structural progression and pain in peripheral OA

From: A systematic review of the relationship between subchondral bone features, pain and structural pathology in peripheral joint osteoarthritis

Subchondral bone feature of OA Pain and structural associations
Knee structure Knee pain Hand structure Hand pain Hip structure Hip pain Ankle structure
MRI bone marrow lesions Progression (i) LPS (i) Progression (i) No LPS (w) Severity (w) Severity (n)  
IFP (n)
No severity (n)
TKR (i)
MRI osteophytes Progression (i) LPS (n) Severity (n) No severity (n)    
TKR (n)
MRI bone attrition No progression (0) No severity (0) Severity (n) No severity (n)    
MRI bone shape or dimensions Progression (i) IFP (i)    No severity (0)   
Severity (n)
TKR (i)
MRI bone cyst No progression No LPS (n) No severity (n) No severity (n)   Severity (n)  
MRI or CT trabecular morphometry Progression (n)     Severity (n)   
DXA or CT Peri-articular BMD Progression (n)     Severity (w)   
2D Bone shape Severity (w) Severity (n)    Progression (i)   
THR (i)
Scintigraphy No Progression (0)    No severity (n)    Severity (w)
  1. CT computed tomography, dual-energy DXA x-ray absorptiometry, (i) independent association, IFP incident frequent pain, (n) association with no or inadequate covariate adjustment, TKR total knee replacement, THR total hip replacement, LPS mean change in longitudinal pain severity, (w) well-adjusted association, (0) association insignificant after covariate adjustment