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Fig. 2 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: Apremilast, a novel phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, regulates inflammation through multiple cAMP downstream effectors

Fig. 2

Apremilast and methotrexate (MTX) prevent inflammation in the air pouch independently. Mice were orally treated with apremilast (5 mg/Kg), and inflammation in the air pouch was induced as described under “Materials and methods”. a TNF-α and leukocyte accumulation were quantified in the exudates of the air pouch. b Immunohistology reveals a decrease in the number of neutrophils (Neut) by apremilast treatment. c IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured in the air pouch exudates with the Luminex multiplex technology. d TNF-α and leukocyte were quantified in the air pouch exudates in mice after weekly intraperitoneal injections of MTX (1 mg/Kg) for 4 weeks prior to apremilast treatment. Data represent mean ± standard error of the mean of at least three independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed by the Student’s t test or one-way ANOVA, where ***P <0.001, **P <0.01 and *P <0.05 vs vehicle

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