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Fig. 6 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 6

From: Apremilast, a novel phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, regulates inflammation through multiple cAMP downstream effectors

Fig. 6

Effect of Protein kinase A (PKA), Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac)1 and Epac2 knockdown on the action of apremilast. a Transfection of Raw 264.7 cells with shRNA for PKA, Epac1 or Epac2 reduce PKA, Epac1 and Epac2 expression, respectively, as shown by RT-PCR. b PKA, Epac1 and Epac2 knockdown Raw 264.7 cells were incubated with apremilast 100nM for 30 minutes before incubation with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 μM during 4 h. Levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-1α were analyzed by ELISA or with the Luminex multiplex technology as described under “Materials and methods”. Data represent means ± standard error of the mean of three independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni posttest correction; ***P <0.001, **P <0.01 vs non-target

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