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Table 3 Assessments of shoulder muscle strength, shoulder movement shoulder pain, hand-grip force and the DASH questionnaire in the patient and reference groups

From: Significantly impaired shoulder function in the first years of rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled study

Variable Patient group (n = 103) Reference group (n = 103) Difference between groupsa p value
Shoulder strength (kg), 5 seconds d. arm 3.67 (1.64) 5.59 (1.22) –1.92 (–2.32; –1.52) <0.0001
3.60 (0.40; 7.70) 5.40 (3.10; 9.90)
n = 102 n = 103
Shoulder abduction (°), d. arm 164.3 (23.1) 178.7 (4.1) –14.4 (–19.0; –9.7) <0.0001
170.0 (45.0; 180.0) 180.0 (160.0; 180.0)
n = 101 n = 101
Shoulder–arm movement, 5–30, d. arm 27.4 (2.9) 29.7 (0.7) –2.29 (–2.87; –1.72) <0.0001
28.0 (11.0; 30.0) 30.0 (26.0; 30.0)
Shoulder pain, 0–50, d. arm 7.63 (7.12) 0.88 (2.14) 6.80 (5.35; 8.24) <0.0001
6.00 (0.00; 38.00) 0.00 (0.00; 12.00)
Hand-grip force (N), 10 seconds d. arm 159 (78.2) 288 (60.0) –128 (–147; –109) <0.0001
151 (16.0; 350) 294 (157; 441)
DASH, 0–100 25.7 (17.3) 2.63 (5.36) 23.1 (19.5; 26.6) <0.0001
21.3 (0.0; 73.3) 0.83 (0.0; 26.7)
n = 102 n = 102
  1. For continuous variables, mean (standard deviation) or median (minimum; maximum) per participant is presented For comparison between groups, the Mann–Whitney U test was used for continuous variables
  2. aMean (95 % confidence interval)
  3. d dominant, DASH Disability of the Shoulder, Arm and Hand