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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients included in the study, N = 3021

From: Higher education is associated with a better rheumatoid arthritis outcome concerning for pain and function but not disease activity: results from the EIRA cohort and Swedish rheumatology register

  With university/college degree Without university/college degree Total Chi square statistics, p values
A: Basic characteristics number (%) number (%) number (%)  
Sex
 Female 586 (82.4) 1585 (68.6) 2171 (71.9) 51.2, <0.0001
 Male 125 (17.6) 725 (31.4) 850 (28.1)
Age (years) at diagnosis
 <40 164 (23.1) 410 (17.8) 574 (19.0) 44.6, <0.0001
 40–50 160 (22.5) 370 (16.0) 530 (17.5)
 50–60 215 (30.2) 694 (30.0) 909 (30.1)
 60–70 172 (24.2) 836 (36.2) 1008 (33.4)
 Median 51.0 52.4 54.5
Treatment initiated at the diagnosis
 DMARDs (including MTX) 606 (85.2) 2004 (86.8) 2610 (86.4) 1.1, 0.30
 Biologics 32 (4.5) 145 (6.3) 177 (5.9) 3.1, 0.08
 Cortisone 276 (38.8) 946 (41.0) 1223 (40.5) 1.0, 0.32
 NSAIDs 384 (54.0) 1153 (49.9) 1537 (50.9) 0.6, 0.06
ACPA status
 Present 458 (65.2) 1521 (66.8) 1979 (66.4) 0.6, 0.44
 Absent 245 (34.8) 757 (33.2) 1002 (33.6)
Cigarette smoking
 Never 297 (41.8) 674 (29.3) 971 (32.4) 76.0, <0.0001
 Past smokers 216 (30.5) 701 (30.5) 917 (30.4)
 Current smokers 106 (14.9) 682 (29.7) 788 (26.2)
 Non regular smokers 91 (12.8) 242 (10.5) 333 (11.0)
Alcohol consumption
 Never drinkers 49 (6.9) 266 (11.5) 315 (10.4) 12.5, 0.0004
 Ever drinkers 662 (93.1) 2041 (88.5) 2703 (89.6)
BMI
 Normal weight: BMI <25 445 (63.9) 1103 (48.6) 1548 (52.2) 51.1, <0.0001
 Overweight: BMI 25–30 189 (27.1) 821 (36.2) 1010 (34.1)
 Obese: BMI >30 63 (9.0) 344 (15.2) 407 (13.7)
 Median 23.7 25.1 24.8
Physical activity before diagnosis
 Sedentary/moderate exercise 518 (73.0) 1513 (65.8) 2031 (67.5) 12.7, 0.0004
 Regular exercise/work out 192 (27.0) 787 (34.2) 979 (32.5)
B: Outcome measures Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) P values (Wilcoxon test)
DAS28 at diagnosis 5.23 (4.26 to 6.05) 5.21 (4.32 to 6.07) 5.22 (4.30 to 6.06) 0.93
VAS-pain at diagnosis 49 (28 to 67) 53 (33 to 71) 51 (32 to 70) <0.0001
HAQ at diagnosis 0.88 (0.50 to 1.38) 1.00 (0.63 to 1.50) 1.00 (0.63 to 1.38) 0.001
DAS28 change at 3-month visit –1.69 (–2.80 to –0.72) –1.63 (–2.72 to –0.62) –1.65 (–2.74 to –0.63) 0.19
VAS-pain change at 3-month visit –17 (–40 to –2) –20 (–43 to –1) –19 (–42 to –1) 0.69
HAQ change at 3-month visit –0.38 (–0.75 to 0.00) –0.37 (–0.75 to 0.00) –0.37 (–0.75 to 0.00) 0.28
DAS28 change at 6-month visit –2.19 (–3.13 to –1.01) –2.02 (–3.06 to –0.91) –2.05 (–3.08 to –0.93) 0.19
VAS-pain change at 6-month visit –20 (–41 to –2) –21 (–43 to –1) –21 (–42 to –1) 0.94
HAQ change at 6-month visit –0.50 (–0.88 to –0.12) –0.38 (–0.87 to 0.00) –0.38 (–0.87 to 0.00) 0.19
DAS28 change at 1-year visit –2.37 (–3.40 to –1.28) –2.16 (–3.30 to –0.96) –2.21 (–3.32 to –1.03) 0.02
VAS-pain change at 1-year visit –20 (–42 to –5) –22 (–43 to 0) –21 (–43 to –1) 0.72
HAQ change at 1-year visit –0.50 (–0.88 to –0.13) –0.38 (–0.88 to 0.00) –0.38 (–0.88 to 0.00) 0.02
  1. DMARD disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, MTX methotrexate, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ACPA anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies, BMI body mass index, DAS28 disease activity in 28 joints, VAS visual analog scale, HAQ health assessment questionnaire