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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients grouped by tertiles of serum uric acid and gout

From: Gout, not hyperuricemia alone, impairs left ventricular diastolic function

Variables First (<6.5 mg/dL) (n = 54) Second (>6.5 and <8.5 mg/dL) (n = 59) Third (>8.5 mg/dL) (n = 60) P value Normo-uricemia (n = 35) Hyperuricemia (n = 30) Gout (n = 108) P value Non-gout (n = 65) P value
Age (years) 56.86 ± 15.36 55.79 ± 11.68 58.44 ± 13.38 0.56 53.54 ± 15.64 56.96 ± 16.07 58.20 ± 11.76 0.20 55.09 ± 16.17 0.154
Men 42 (78 %) 54 (92 %) 54 (90 %) 0.064 26 (74 %) 27 (90 %) 97 (90 %) 0.06 50 (81 %) 0.079
Body surface area (m2) 1.70 ± 0.20 1.83 ± 0.22* 1.81 ± 0.18* 0.002 1.68 ± 0.19 1.77 ± 0.16 1.82 ± 0.20* 0.003 1.72 ± 0.18* 0.004
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.03 ± 1.07 7.63 ± 0.52* 10.05 ± 1.17* <0.001 4.96 ± 1.04 8.87 ± 1.42* 8.19 ± 2.04* <0.001 6.68 ± 2.3** <0.001
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.0 ± 0.43 1.19 ± 0.38 1.34 ± 1.4 0.115 0.83 ± 0.19 1.01 ± 0.13 1.34 ± 1.09* 0.006 0.9 ± 0.19** <0.001
eGFR 81.68 ± 32.80 81.33 ± 34.91 74.53 ± 31.12 0.41 90.14 ± 30.08 80.67 ± 29.21 75.05 ± 34.20 0.059 85.77 ± 29.83** 0.038
Diabetes mellitus 3 (6 %) 2 (3 %) 6 (10 %) 0.322 2 (6 %) 3 (10 %) 6 (6 %) 0.60 5 (8 %) 0.492
Hypertension 11 (20 %) 12 (20 %) 15 (25 %) 0.781 8 (23 %) 8 (27 %) 22 (20 %) 0.78 16 (26 %) 0.362
Hypercholesterolemia 14 (26 %) 20 (34 %) 19 (32 %) 0.641 17 (49 %) 13 (43 %) 45 (42 %) 0.79 17 (27 %) 0.493
Smoking 6 (11 %) 13 (22 %) 6 (10 %) 0.123 5 (14 %) 5 (17 %) 15 (14 %) 0.95 10 (16 %) 0.657
LV dimensions and volume           
IVS (mm) 9.51 ± 1.32 10.65 ± 1.8* 10.45 ± 1.82* 0.001 9.37 ± 1.61 10.27 ± 1.85 10.49 ± 1.66* 0.004 9.79 ± 1.81** 0.017
LVEDd (mm) 46.76 ± 5.94 48.12 ± 4.97 47.79 ± 5.72 0.404 45.80 ± 6.11 47.15 ± 4.47 48.27 ± 5.53 0.06 46.36 ± 5.52** 0.031
PW (mm) 9.85 ± 1.35 11.15 ± 1.52* 10.94 ± 1.86* <0.001 9.89 ± 1.56 10.64 ± 1.71 10.93 ± 1.64* 0.006 10.21 ± 1.66** 0.007
LVESd (mm) 26.37 ± 4.55 27.05 ± 4.29 27.04 ± 4.36 0.643 25.64 ± 4.77 27.31 ± 3.77 27.08 ± 4.38 '0.19 26.32 ± 4.43 0.255
LV mass (g/m) 159.6 ± 44.48 195.18 ± 48.37* 192.24 ± 56.28* <0.001 154.11 ± 48.92 177.80 ± 41.77 193.90 ± 52.59 * < 0.001 164.54 ± 47.97** <0.001
LV mass index (g/m2) 93.78 ± 25.09 107.57 ± 28.39* 106.2 ± 30.61* 0.019 91.14 ± 27.03 100.56 ± 24.09 107.18 ± 29.51 *0.01 95.4 ± 26.57** 0.009
LVEDV (mL) 69.33 ± 19.61 77.29 ± 20.37 72.75 ± 20.21 0.11 66.97 ± 20.19 68.80 ± 19.80 76.49 ± 19.81* 0.02 67.73 ± 20.36** 0.008
LVEDV index (mL/m2) 40.83 ± 11.46 42.29 ± 10.81 40.11 ± 10.29 0.538 39.55 ± 10.33 38.51 ± 9.87 42.28 ± 11.12 0.15 39.09 ± 10.3 0.066
LVESV (mL) 19.59 ± 8.14 22.12 ± 8.55 20.07 ± 7.48 0.205 18.54 ± 7.28 19.67 ± 9.25 21.56 ± 7.91 0.12 19.26 ± 8.35 0.105
LVESV index (mL/m2) 11.62 ± 5.19 12.1 ± 4.76 11.07 ± 4.03 0.404 10.96 ± 3.91 10.93 ± 4.84 11.98 ± 4.82 0.37 11.08 ± 4.4 0.265
LV systolic function           
LVEF (%) 73.99 ± 9.2 74.28 ± 7.22 73.82 ± 7.26 0.95 72.57 ± 5.42 72.50 ± 6.98 71.95 ± 6.08 0.83 73.67 ± 8.84 0.671
LV diastolic function           
E (m/s) 0.71 ± 0.15 0.66 ± 0.13 0.67 ± 0.17 0.117 0.78 ± 0.15 0.65 ± 0.14 0.67 ± 0.15 0.31 0.69 ± 0.15 0.475
A (m/s) 0.74 ± 0.2 0.73 ± 0.2 0.75 ± 0.19 0.872 0.71 ± 0.17 0.75 ± 0.22 0.74 ± 0.19 0.74 0.74 ± 0.2 0.853
E/A 1.03 ± 0.35 0.99 ± 0.36 0.95 ± 0.34 0.514 1.05 ± 0.38 0.92 ± 0.30 0.98 ± 0.34 0.32 0.99 ± 0.36 0.895
Em (cm/s) 8.12 ± 2.82 7.34 ± 2.22 7.24 ± 2.04 0.102 8.79 ± 3.04 7.94 ± 2.15 7.03 ± 2.02* <0.001 8.45 ± 2.7** 0.001
Am (cm/s) 8.42 ± 1.57 8.93 ± 1.74 9.14 ± 2.2 0.117 8.24 ± 1.54 9.01 ± 2.14 8.98 ± 1.87 0.11 8.69 ± 1.88 0.414
Em/Am 1.02 ± 0.5 0.86 ± 0.38 0.85 ± 0.34 0.05 1.14 ± 0.57 0.94 ± 0.40 0.82 ± 0.31* <0.001 1.05 ± 0.52** 0.001
E/Em 9.49 ± 3.05 9.47 ± 2.48 9.67 ± 3.12 0.918 8.58 ± 2.07 8.79 ± 3.31 10.07 ± 2.91* 0.008 8.72 ± 2.74** 0.004
Maximal LAVi (mL/m2) 12.94 ± 5.80 16.45 ± 6.59* 15.77 ± 7.18 0.013 11.49 ± 3.36 12.71 ± 4.20 16.96 ± 7.39*f <0.001 20.34 ± 4.86** <0.001
Moderate-to-severe LV diastolic dysfunction 7 (13 %) 9 (15 %) 14 (23 %) 0.301 2 (6 %) 3 (10 %) 25 (23 %) 0.02 5(8 %)** 0.016
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or number (percentage). *P <0.05 versus group with uric acid (UA) ≤6.5 mg/dL group or normo-uricemic group. **P <0.05 compared with gout group. P <0.05 versus group with UA >6.5 and ≤8.5 mg/Dl or the hyperuricemic group. Moderate-to-severe LV diastolic dysfunction: (1) pseudonormal pattern: 0.75 ≤ E/A ratio <1.5 and E/Em ratio >10 and (2) restrictive pattern: E/A ratio ≥1.5 and E/Em ratio >10. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, A late diastolic peak transmitral flow velocity, Am peak late diastolic annular velocity, E early diastolic peak transmitral flow velocity, Em peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity, IVS interventricular septum, LAVi left atrial volume index, LV left ventricle, LVEDd LV end-diastolic diameter, LVEDV LV end-diastolic volume, LVEF LV ejection fraction, LVESd LV end-systolic diameter, LVESV LV end-systolic volume, PW posterior wall thickness