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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the groups studied

From: Serum leptin and serum leptin/serum leptin receptor ratio imbalance in obese rheumatoid arthritis patients positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies

  Normal weight   Preobese   Obese  
Measurement Control RA P Control RA P Control RA P
n = 21 n = 21 n = 26 n = 21 n = 19 n = 22
Age, years 34 ± 11 39 ± 12 0.127 43 ± 12 47 ± 10 0.230 46 ± 9 41 ± 9 0.076
Body weight, kg 60 ± 7 57 ± 6 0.126 68 ± 6 69 ± 5 0.578 91 ± 18 82 ± 9 0.060
BMI, kg/m2 22.00 ± 1.78 22.13 ± 2.27 0.845 27.26 ± 1.16 27.50 ± 1.28 0.498 35.03 ± 6.79 33.55 ± 2.75 0.384
Body fat mass, % 26.36 ± 5.66 25.95 ± 6.79 0.834 36.20 ± 3.24 36.21 ± 3.21 0.991 38.78 ± 8.19 42.35 ± 5.00 0.095
Body fat mass, kg 15.86 ± 3.87 14.67 ± 4.29 0.353 24.54 ± 4.84 24.88 ± 3.24 0.784 35.58 ± 12.01 34.81 ± 7.17 0.806
Body fat ratio, kg/m2 5.83 ± 1.47 5.80 ± 1.83 0.958 9.94 ± 1.54 9.97 ± 1.15 0.942 13.86 ± 5.25 14.29 ± 2.60 0.739
VFA, cm2 46.38 ± 26.58 77.12 ± 43.28 0.021 81.26 ± 23.62 119.52 ± 35.22 <0.001 106.43 ± 30.24 131.83 ± 21.97 0.036
S4ST, mm 52.08 ± 13.67 49.17 ± 14.48 0.513 105.94 ± 20.79 70.56 ± 19.21 <0.001 90.06 ± 16.94 76.34 ± 23.01 0.015
ESR, mm/h 9.76 ± 6.32 19.38 ± 9.82 0.001 21.19 ± 10.08 17.10 ± 12.14 0.213 14.21 ± 10.20 27.33 ± 14.08 <0.001
CRP, mg/L 5.22 ± 2.72 7.66 ± 7.08 0.153 3.56 ± 3.07 8.83 ± 6.67 0.005 8.66 ± 4.70 11.02 ± 9.19 0.112
Glucose mg/dL 94.43 ± 14.03 96.90 ± 14.27 0.574 93.42 ± 27.18 100.80 ± 16.33 0.223 101.37 ± 11.36 98.25 ± 10.81 0.386
Insulin, μΙU/mL 6.97 ± 6.97 14.43 ± 10.82 0.005 9.98 ± 6.56 14.76 ± 16.54 0.268 12.81 ± 8.35 23.16 ± 44.60 0.240
HOMA-IR 1.49 ± 1.16 3.61 ± 2.98 0.003 2.34 ± 1.59 4.34 ± 4.98 0.171 3.28 ± 2.25 5.58 ± 10.92 0.278
Leptin, ng/mL 30.14 ± 20.69 45.98 ± 40.26 0.119 35.48 ± 12.32 121.65 ± 106.35 0.001 79.11 ± 45.20 188.21 ± 100.88 <0.001
sLepR, ng/mL 68.81 ± 24.02 60.02 ± 18.81 0.209 43.98 ± 15.24 51.34 ± 12.51 0.131 44.75 ± 14.91 37.49 ± 9.67 0.096
Leptin/sLepR 0.53 ± .50 0.98 ± 1.40 0.176 0.89 ± 0.41 2.45 ± 2.45 0.033 2.18 ± 1.62 5.67 ± 3.56 0.002
Leptin/FM, ng/mL/kg 1.87 ± 1.21 3.04 ± 1.95 0.027 1.41 ± 0.423 4.99 ± 4.48 0.002 2.18 ± 1.19 5.32 ± 2.67 <0.001
sLepR/FM, ng/mL/kg 4.59 ± 1.89 4.56 ± 2.33 0.964 1.83 ± 0.71 2.12 ± 0.53 0.196 1.49 ± 0.95 1.10 ± 0.41 0.113
  1. Continuous variables are represented by mean ± standard deviation; means were compared with Student’s t test. RA rheumatoid arthritis, BMI body mass index, VFA visceral fat area, S4AP sum of four skinfold thicknesses (bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and supra-iliac), ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, sLepR soluble leptin receptor), FM fat mass, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance