Skip to main content

Table 1 Distribution of variables used in the study

From: A low cortisol response to stress is associated with musculoskeletal pain combined with increased pain sensitivity in young adults: a longitudinal cohort study

  Females, n (%) Males, n (%)
Cortisol response group   
 Cluster 1 126 (34) 94 (21)
 Cluster 2 173 (47) 238 (54)
 Cluster 3 67 (18) 107 (24)
Oral contraceptive use   
 No 227 (62)  
 Yes 139 (38)  
Smoking   
 No 324 (89) 355 (82)
 Yes 41 (11) 79 (18)
Body mass index   
 Normal 261 (72) 313 (72)
 Overweight 58 (16) 79 (18)
 Obese 43 (12) 41 (10)
Physical activity level   
 0 h/wk 139 (45) 108 (32)
 0.1–4.9 h/wk 112 (37) 114 (34)
  ≥ 5.0 h/wk 56 (18) 117 (35)
Depressive symptoms   
 Minimal 219 (72) 309 (86)
 Mild 42 (14) 33 (9)
 Moderate to severe 42 (14) 16 (5)
MS pain   
 No 160 (58) 188 (67)
 Yes 117 (42) 92 (33)
MS pain and CPT > P50a   
 No 193 (77) 218 (85)
 Yes 57 (23) 37 (15)
MS pain and PPT < P50b   
 No 189 (76) 227 (86)
 Yes 59 (24) 37 (14)
Pain problem severity indexc   
 Low 204 (74) 210 (75)
 Highc 73 (26) 70 (25)
High painc and CPT > P50a   
 No 215 (86) 228 (89)
 Yes 35 (14) 27 (11)
High painc and PPT < P50b   
 No 219 (88) 235 (89)
 Yes 29 (12) 29 (11)
  1. MS musculoskeletal, CPT cold pain threshold, PPT pressure pain threshold
  2. aMedian (P50) CPT = 15 °C in females and 7 °C in males
  3. bMedian (P50) PPT = 318 kPa in females and 419 kPa in males
  4. cHigh pain problem severity index = 15 or more in females and 9 or more in males