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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for covariates according to cortisol response groups

From: A low cortisol response to stress is associated with musculoskeletal pain combined with increased pain sensitivity in young adults: a longitudinal cohort study

  Females, n (%)   Males, n (%)  
  Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 p Valuea Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 p Valuea
Oral contraceptive use     <0.001     
 No 112 (89) 106 (61) 9 (13)      
 Yes 14 (11) 67 (39) 58 (87)      
Smoking     0.085     0.300
 No 107 (85) 153 (89) 64 (96)   74 (79) 190 (81) 91 (87)  
 Yes 19 (15) 19 (11) 3 (5)   20 (21) 45 (19) 14 (13)  
Body mass index     0.073     0.955
 Normal 83 (67) 128 (74) 50 (76)   67 (73) 171 (73) 75 (71)  
 Overweight 18 (15) 28 (16) 12 (18)   16 (17) 41 (18) 22 (21)  
 Obese 23 (19) 16 (9) 4 (6)   9 (10) 23 (10) 9 (9)  
Physical activity level     0.090     0.048
 0 h/wk 50 (48) 57 (40) 32 (53)   26 (38) 49 (27) 33 (38)  
 0.1–4.9 h/wk 31 (30) 57 (40) 24 (39)   18 (26) 63 (34) 33 (38)  
  ≥ 5.0 h/wk 23 (22) 28 (20) 5 (8)   25 (36) 72 (39) 20 (23)  
Depressive symptoms     0.393     0.167
 Minimal 73 (70) 103 (73) 43 (75)   68 (91) 171 (86) 70 (82)  
 Mild 12 (11) 22 (16) 8 (14)   2 (3) 20 (10) 11 (13)  
 Moderate to severe 20 (19) 16 (11) 6 (11)   5 (7) 7 (4) 4 (5)  
  1. a p Values derived from χ 2 test