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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression analysis for variables associated with musculoskeletal pain alone and combined with increased pain sensitivity among males

From: A low cortisol response to stress is associated with musculoskeletal pain combined with increased pain sensitivity in young adults: a longitudinal cohort study

  MS pain only MS pain combined with CPT > P50a MS pain combined with PPT < P50a
  Any pain High pain problem severityb Any pain High pain problem severityb Any pain High pain problem severityb
Cortisol response group       
 Cluster 1 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.6 (0.3–1.5) 1.2 (0.4–3.3) 1.6 (0.5–4.9) 1.5 (0.6–4.1) 1.7 (0.6–4.9)
 Cluster 2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Cluster 3 0.9 (0.4–1.8) 0.8 (0.3–1.8) 1.0 (0.4–2.9) 1.2 (0.3–3.9) 2.1 (0.9–5.4) 2.1 (0.7–5.9)
Smoking       
 No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Yes 1.1 (0.4–2.8) 1.7 (0.6–4.4) 0.2 (0.0–1.9) 0.3 (0.0–2.9) 0.6 (0.1–2.8) 0.7 (0.2–3.7)
Body mass index       
 Normal 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Overweight 1.5 (0.7–3.0) 1.8 (0.8–3.8) 0.9 (0.3–2.6) 1.1 (0.4–3.6) 0.7 (0.3–2.0) 1.0 (0.3–3.1)
 Obese 1.7 (0.5–6.2) 2.9 (0.8–10.8) 1.1 (0.1–9.5) 1.6 (0.2–15.8) 1.5 (0.3–7.7) 2.2 (0.4–11.7)
Physical activity level       
 0 h/wk 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 0.1–4.9 h/wk 0.7 (0.3–1.4) 0.4 (0.2–1.0) 0.4 (0.1–1.3) 0.3 (0.1–1.2) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.6 (0.2–1.8)
  ≥ 5.0 h/wk 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.8 (0.4–1.8) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 0.8 (0.3–2.4) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.9 (0.3–2.5)
Depressive symptoms       
 Minimal 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Mild 1.4 (0.5–4.2) 1.6 (0.5–4.9) 3.1 (0.9–10.8) 3.3 (0.9–12.8) 1.4 (0.3–5.5) 1.8 (0.4–7.5)
 Moderate to severe 4.2 (1.0–17.9) 3.7 (0.9–15.3) 1.2 (0.1–10.9) 1.5 (0.2–15.2) 0.7 (0.1–6.4) 0.9 (0.1–8.4)
  1. MS musculoskeletal, CPT cold pain threshold, PPT pressure pain threshold
  2. Data are presented as odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals
  3. aMedian (P50) CPT = 7 °C; median PPT = 419 kPa
  4. bHigh pain problem severity index = 9 or more
  5. All covariates were included in the multivariate model. Reference group includes those without pain or with a low severity of pain and those with pain but with CPT < P50 or PPT > P50
  6. The number of individuals included in the analysis varied from 198 to 215 due to missing data