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Fig. 4 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 4

From: Randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of antiarthritic agents in inhibiting cartilage degeneration and pain associated with progression of osteoarthritis in the rat

Fig. 4

Representative frontal images from the intraarticular (IA) delivery studies in the monoiodoacetic acid (MIA; original magnification × 16) and medial meniscal tear/medial collateral ligament tear (MMT/MCLT; original magnification × 25) rat models (28 and 21 days postinjury, respectively). Shown are images from animals treated with saline, 4.5 mg of clonidine, 150 mg of triamcinolone, 30 ng of tacrolimus, 15 ng of fluocinolone, 100 mg of meloxicam, or 30 mg of curcumin. MIA: M medial, L lateral, S synovium, large arrows affected cartilage surface, small arrows osteophyte. MMT/MCLT: M marrow, large arrows affected cartilage surface, small arrows osteophyte. Top right: Comparisons of mean cartilage matrix damage and total joint scores with matrix (ad). a Trial 2 MIA systemic study (n = 10 per group). b Trial 3 MIA IA study (n = 10 per group). c Trial 1 MMT/MCLT systemic study (n = 8). d Trial 2 MMT/MCLT IA study (n = 10). Toluidine blue–stained sections from knees of animals treated with test compounds were analyzed for proteoglycan and cartilage matrix loss, subchondral bone resorption, sclerosis, and osteophyte formation as well as synovitis (see Additional file 1). Femoral and tibial cartilage degeneration scores were summed for total cartilage scores (blue). Total joint scores also included osteophyte analysis (red)

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