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Table 1 Histological score for evaluation of pathological changes in synovial membrane, cartilage, bone and blood vessels

From: Effect of M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor deficiency on collagen antibody-induced arthritis

Score Synovial membrane Cartilage Bone α-SMA
0 No changes No changes No changes Few blood vessels, none with thickened walls
1 >2 cell layers, moderate immune cell infiltration Erosion in parts of cartilage surface Bone remodeling only close to the joint capsule Few blood vessels, few with thickened walls
2 >5 cell layers, strong immune cell infiltration, starting pannus formation Erosion of cartilage surface, cartilage destruction Bone remodeling also in deeper parts reaching epiphyseal plate Increased number of blood vessels, some of them with thickened walls
3 Like score 2 + pannus formation + more blood vessels Like score 2 + cartilage covered by connective tissue Like score 2 + bone degradation Many blood vessels, most of them (more than 50 %) with thickened walls
  1. α-SMA alpha-smooth muscle actin