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Table 1 Participant demographics, clinical characteristics, and inflammation

From: A novel inflammatory biomarker, GlycA, associates with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and cardio-metabolic risk in BMI-matched controls

  Rheumatoid arthritis
(n = 50)
Controls
(n = 39)
Age (years) 55.4 ± 12.8 52.1 ± 11.4
Gender   
 Female 35 (70 %) 27 (69 %)
 Male 15 (30 %) 12 (31 %)
Race  
 Pacific Islander 1 (2 %) 0 (0 %)
 African American 14 (28 %) 12 (31 %)
 Caucasian 35 (70 %) 27 (69 %)
Clinical characteristics  
 BMI (kg/m2) 30.5 ± 7.5 29.0 ± 5.3
 Waist circumference (cm) 95.3 ± 16.7 85.0 ± 27.9
 HAQ-DI 0.7 ± 0.7*** 0 ± 0
 Pain (VAS) (mm) 40.1 ± 28.9*** 9.8 ± 2.4
 Comorbidity index 1.6 ± 1.2** 0.6 ± 0.9
 DASESR-28 3.0 ± 1.4 NA
 Remission (DAS <2.6) 19 (40 %)  
 Low activity (DAS 2.6–3.2) 8 (17 %)
 Moderate activity (DAS 3.2–5.1) 16 (33 %)
 High activity (DAS >5.1) 5 (10 %)
 RF positive 41/46 NA
 Anti-CCP positive 20/21 NA
 Radiograph erosions present 21/38 NA
Medication use  
 Etanercept 10 (20 %) NA
 Infliximab 2 (4 %) NA
 Adalimumab 5 (10 %) NA
 Abatacept 5 (10 %) NA
 Methotrexate 38 (76 %) NA
 Leflunomide 1 (2 %) NA
 Sulfasalazine 0 NA
 Hydroxychloroquine 10 (20 %) NA
 NSAID 18 (36 %) NA
 Prednisone 12 (24 %) NA
Systemic inflammation (mean ± SEM)  
 ESR (mm/hour) 11.9 ± 1.7* 7.6 ± 2.6
 hsCRP (mg/l) 7.9 ± 1.2** 3.2 ± 0.7
 IL-1β (pg/ml) 0.8 ± 0.2* 0.7 ± 0.2
 IL-6 (pg/ml) 19.8 ± 7.3*** 3.1 ± 0.3
 IL-8 (pg/ml) 10.9 ± 1.1* 17.8 ± 8.0
 IL-18 (pg/ml) 464.2 ± 21.1** 390.8 ± 21.8
 TNFα (pg/ml) 31.5 ± 5.0*** 11.4 ± 8.6
Metabolic   
 Fasting insulin (mU/l) 7.5 ± 7.5 7.5 ± 5.6
 Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 89.9 ± 13.6* 97.2 ± 11.4
 HOMA 1.7 ± 1.8 1.8 ± 1.5
IS index (×10–5.min−1/(pmol/l))  
 Women 6.8 ± 6.5 8.4 ± 10.4
 Men 4.2 ± 3.3 5.3 ± 3.3
 Acute insulin response (pmol/l) 481 ± 523 324 ± 230
Adiposity and muscle   
 Abdominal   
  Total adipose area (cm2) 411 ± 201 400 ± 157
  Subcutaneous adiposity (cm2) 306 ± 155 275 ± 132
  Visceral adiposity (cm2) 105 ± 86 125 ± 96
 Liver density (Hu) 60 ± 11 59 ± 12
 Thigh   
  Total thigh area (cm2) 250 ± 74 244 ± 59
  Subcutaneous adiposity (cm2) 124 ± 63 108 ± 51
  Intermuscular adiposity (cm2) 12 ± 7 12 ± 8
 Muscle area (cm2) 115 ± 37 124 ± 32
 Muscle density (Hu) 51 ± 6 52 ± 4
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or frequency (percentage) unless otherwise stated
  2. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, ***P <0.001 as compared with controls
  3. BMI body mass index, CCP cyclic citrullinated peptide, DAS Disease Activity Score, DAS ESR -28 Disease Activity Score with 28-joint count using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HAQ-DI Health Assessment Questionnaire—Disability Index, HOMA homeostasis model assessment, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL interleukin, IS insulin sensitivity, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, RF rheumatoid factor, SEM standard error of the mean, TNFα tumor necrosis factor alpha, VAS visual analog scale, NA not applicable