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Table 4 Clinical variables associated with five disease activity-associated biomarkers

From: Identification of definitive serum biomarkers associated with disease activity in primary Sjögren’s syndrome

Variable N CXCL13 TNF-R2 CD48 BAFF PD-L2
r P r P r P r P r P
ESSDAI score 58 0.7 <0.0001 0.59 <0.0001 0.54 <0.0001 0.43 0.001 0.39 0.002
 Constitutional   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Lymphadenopathy   0.69 <0.0001 0.54 <0.0001 0.58 <0.0001 0.58 <0.0001 0.5 <0.0001
 Glandular   0.44 0.001 0.37 0.004 0.33 0.01 0.43 0.001 0.3 0.02
 Articular   0.06 0.62 0.14 0.3 −0.03 0.8 0.11 0.39 −0.08 0.57
 Cutaneous   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Pulmonary   0.65 <0.0001 0.52 <0.0001 0.52 <0.0001 0.38 0.003 0.34 0.01
 Renal   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Muscular   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Peripheral nervous system   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Central nervous system   −0.001 0.1 0.01 0.94 −0.04 0.79 0.07 0.59 0.1 0.41
 Hematological   0.17 0.2 0.1 0.47 0.02 0.9 −0.17 0.21 −0.13 0.32
 Biological   0.5 <0.0001 0.42 0.001 0.45 0.0004 0.11 0.4 0.2 0.13
IgG 55 0.62 <0.0001 0.5 <0.0001 0.57 <0.0001 0.16 0.25 0.12 0.38
C3 52 −0.12 0.39 −0.06 0.69 −0.24 0.09 0.04 0.77 0.01 0.96
C4 52 0.13 0.37 0.24 0.08 0.18 0.2 0.2 0.15 0.13 0.37
Schirmer test (mm/5 min) 21 0.03 0.9 −0.28 0.23 −0.12 0.6 −0.38 0.09 0.23 0.32
RB test (score) 14 −0.04 0.9 0.18 0.55 0.17 0.57 0.05 0.86 −0.16 0.58
Fluorescein (score) 17 0.19 0.45 0.23 0.38 −0.12 0.65 0.3 0.23 0.2 0.44
Gum test (ml) 28 −0.18 0.35 −0.4 0.03 −0.28 0.15 −0.2 0.3 −0.02 0.91
GS grade (score) 23 0.08 0.72 0.13 0.54 0.23 0.29 0.28 0.2 0.23 0.3
Scintigraphy 40           
 PG uptake ratio (%)   −0.18 0.26 −0.27 0.1 −0.01 0.95 0.01 0.94 −0.13 0.44
 SMG uptake ratio (%)   −0.48 0.004 −0.52 0.001 −0.28 0.1 −0.43 0.01 −0.15 0.4
 PG excretion ratio (%)   0.12 0.45 0.06 0.7 0.02 0.9 −0.05 0.77 −0.08 0.64
 SMG excretion ratio (%)   0.05 0.79 0.26 0.18 0.09 0.62 −0.49 0.01 0.26 0.17
  1. Candidate biomarkers and clinical variables are shown in the header row and left columns, respectively. Data are presented as Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r) and P values (P). A P value <0.05 was considered significant. TNFR TNF receptor, BAFF B-cell activating factor, PD-L2 programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 2, ESSDAI score the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) score, Schirmer’s test Schirmer’s I test (mm/5 min), RB test Rose Bengal staining (score: van Bijsterveld score), Fluorescein fluorescein staining (score: van Bijsterveld score), GS grade Greenspan’s grade, Scintigraphy technetium 99m-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy, PG parotid gland, SMG submandibular gland, N number of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, NA not applicable