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Table 1 Effects of estrogen-related drugs on joint tissues

From: Are estrogen-related drugs new alternatives for the management of osteoarthritis?

Tissue Main effects
Articular cartilage Reduction of articular cartilage turnover and destruction, regulation of cartilage metabolism, improvement of mechanical properties
Subchondral bone Regulation of bone growth and remodeling, promotion of matrix production and mineralization, regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast development and function
Synovial membrane Decrease of the proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis-like synovial cells, decrease of proinflammatory cytokine production, reversion of experimental arthritis
Muscle Promotion of myoblast proliferation and differentiation, reduction of muscle cell apoptosis, reversion of muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction