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Table 2 Effects of estrogen on joint tissues

From: Are estrogen-related drugs new alternatives for the management of osteoarthritis?

Drug name Type of study Effects on joint tissues Reference
Estradiol In-vivo OVX + OA rabbits Cartilage degeneration [16]
β-estradiol In-vivo OVX rabbits Loss of glycosaminoglycans and collagen [17]
17β-estradiol In-vivo OVX rats Decrease of CTX-II; prevention of cartilage lesions [20]
17β-estradiol In-vivo postmenopausal OA women Decrease of 17β-estradiol after menopause [21]
Estrogen In-vivo postmenopausal OA women Estrogen deficiency may lead to increase of serum IL-6 [22]
17β-estradiol In-vivo murine with knee OA Inhibition of tibial and patellar subchondral cortical thinning and tibial cartilage damage [23]
17β-estradiol In-vivo OVX + OA mice Inhibition of bone resorption; decreased ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 expression [19]
β-estradiol In-vivo OA + OVX murine Reduction of cartilage and bone turnover [18]
β-estradiol In-vivo OVX + ACLT murine Regulation of intraarticular neurogenic inflammation [24]
17β-estradiol In-vivo OA + OVX murine Potentiation of cartilage degradation and subchondral bone erosion and mRNA expression of Fas, FasL, caspase 3, and caspase 8 [25]
17β-estradiol In-vitro rabbit chondrocytes Upregulation of type II collagen gene [26]
17β-estradiol In-vitro cow mature joint cartilage Prevention injury-related cell death and GAG release [27]
17β-estradiol In-vitro rabbit chondrocytes Inhibition of doxorubicin-induced apoptosis [28]
17β-estradiol In-vitro rat OA chondrocytes Promotion of chondrocyte proliferation [29]
Oral estrogen CSS osteoporotic white women Reduction of risk of any hip OA [31]
HRT CSS women around menopause Inverse association of current HRT use and radiological OA of the knee [35]
Oral estrogen CSS women with OA No positive association of estrogen use with radiographic knee OA [36]
ERT CSS older women Protection moderately against worsening of radiographic knee OA, but not statistically significant [37]
ERT CSS women Nonsignificant protective effect for incident knee osteophytes [38]
CEE RCT community-dwelling women Lower rates of any arthroplasty [32]
Estrogen CSS women Lower subchondral bone attrition and bone marrow edema-like abnormalities [33]
Estrogen CSS, older women No significant correlation with knee replacement of OA [39]
HT Prospective study, women around menopause Correlation highly with the hip or knee replacement rates of OA [40]
17β-estradiol RCT postmenopausal OP women Decrease of levels of COMP [34]
  1. OA osteoarthritis, OP osteoporosis, OVX ovariectomy, CTX-II C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide type II collagen, HRT hormone replacement therapy, ERT estrogen replacement therapy, COMP cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, ACLT anterior cruciate ligament transaction, CEE conjugated equine estrogens, HT hormonal therapies, CSS cross-sectional study, RCT randomized controlled trial