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Table 1 Study design and baseline characteristics of study participants presented per treatment-control combination

From: Tocilizumab as monotherapy or combination therapy for treating active rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of efficacy and safety reported in randomized controlled trials

Study Treatment arms Design Study length (weeks) Enrolled patients (n) csDMARD-naïve at baseline (yes, no) Previous biologic therapy (%) Mean age (years) Female (%) Symptom duration (years) ESR (mm/h) CRP (mg/l) DAS28 HAQ
TCZCOMBI vs. TCZMONO
 SURPRISE (2016) TCZCOMBI Open label 52 115 No 0 56 (12) 87 4 (3) 41 (28) 12 (15) 5.1 (1) 1.0 (0.7)
  TCZMONO 111 56 (3) 87 4 (3) 45 (30) 18 (26) 5.3 (1.2) 1.0 (0.7)
 FUNCTION (2015) TCZCOMBI Double-blind 52 291 Nof 0 50 (14) 79 6 (6)g 53 (30) 26 (30) 6.7 (1.1) 1.5 (0.6)
  TCZMONO 292 50 (12) 75 6 (6)g 51 (28) 25 (32) 6.7(1.0) 1.6 (0.7)
 ACT-RAY (2013) TCZCOMBI Open-label, double-blindc 24 277 No 0 53 (13) 82 8 (8) NR NR 6.3 (1) 1.5 (0.7)
  TCZMONO 276 54 (12) 79 8 (8) 6.4 (1) 1.5 (0.6)
 ACT-STAR (2013)a TCZCOMBI Open-label 24 360 No 67 54 (12) 78 11 (9) NR 14 (21) 5.5 (1) NR
  TCZMONO 163 87 54 (13) 80 14 (10) 19 (33) 6.0 (1)
 CHARISMA (2006)b TCZCOMBI Double-blind 16 50 No 14 50 (NR) 78 11 (NR)c 39 (NR) 24 (NR) 6.5 (NR) NR
  TCZMONO 52 50 (NR) 73 9 (NR)c 39 (NR) 22 (NR) 6.4 (NR)
TCZCOMBI vs. csDMARD
 FUNCTION (2015) TCZCOMBI Double-blind 52 291 No 0 50 (14) 79 6 (6)c 53 (30) 26 (30) 6.7 (1.1) 1.5 (0.6)
  csDMARD 289   50 (13) 80 5 (6)c 50 (27) 23 (27) 6.6 (1.0) 1.5 (0.7)
 ROSE (2012) TCZCOMBI Double-blind 24 409 No 38 55 (12) 80 9 (9) 46 (24) 17 (21) 6.5 (1) 4.1 (1.7)h
  csDMARD 205 38 56 (12) 84 9 (9) 47 (22) 17 (22) 6.6 (1) 4.0 (2.1)h
 LITHE (2011)a TCZCOMBI Double-blindd 52 398 No 11 53 (12) 82 9 (NR) 46 (25) 23 (26) 6.6 (1) 1.5 (0.6)
  csDMARD 393 12 51 (12) 83 9 (NR) 47 (25) 22 (25) 6.5 (1) 1.5 (0.6)
 TOWARD (2008) TCZCOMBI Double-blind 24 803 No NS 53 (13) 81 10 (9) 48 (28) 26 (32) 6.7 (1) 1.5 (0.6)
  csDMARD 413 54 (13) 84 10 (9) 49 (28) 26 (47) 6.6 (1) 1.5 (0.6)
 OPTION (2008)a TCZCOMBI Double-blind 24 205 No 5 51 (12) 85 8 (7) 51 (27) 26 (26) 6.8 (1) 1.6 (0.6)
  csDMARD 204 9 51 (12) 78 8 (7) 50 (26) 24 (28) 6.8 (1) 1.5 (0.6)
 RADIATE (2008)a TCZCOMBI Double-blind 24 170 No 100 54 (13) 84 13 (9) 49 (28) 28 (33) 6.8 (1) 1.7 (0.6)
  csDMARD 158 53 (13) 79 11 (9) 55 (33) 37 (41) 6.8 (1) 1.7 (0.6)
 CHARISMA (2006)b TCZCOMBI Double-blind 16 50 No 14 50 (NR) 78 11 (NR)c 39 (NR) 24 (NR) 6.5 (NR) NR
  csDMARD 49 51 (NR) 78 11 (NR)c 43 (NR) 32 (NR) 6.8 (NR)
TCZMONO vs. csDMARD
 FUNCTION (2015) TCZMONO Double-blind 52 292 No 0 50 (12) 75 6 (6)c 51 (28) 25 (32) 6.7(1.0) 1.6 (0.7)
  csDMARD 289 50 (13) 80 5 (6)c 50 (27) 23 (27) 6.6 (1.0) 1.5 (0.7)
 AMBITION (2010) TCZMONO Double-blind 24 286 No 8 51 (13) 83 6 (8) 50 (28) 30 (33) 6.8 (1) 1.6 (0.7)
  csDMARD 284 7 50 (13) 79 6 (8) 49 (26) 31 (34) 6.8 (1) 1.5 (0.6)
 SATORI (2009) TCZMONO Double-blind 24 61 No NS 53 (11) 90 9 (8) 52 (28) 30 (20) 6.1 (1) NR
  csDMARD 64 51 (12) 75 9 (7) 52 (24) 32 (26) 6.2 (1)
 SAMURAI (2007) TCZMONO Open-labele 52 157 No NS 53 (12) 80 2 (1) 71 (28) 47 (29) 6.5 (1) NR
  csDMARD 145 53 (13) 82 2 (1) 71 (25) 49 (29) 6.4 (1)
 CHARISMA (2006)b TCZMONO Double-blind 16 52 No 14 50 (NR) 73 9 (NR)c 39 (NR) 22 (NR) 6.4 (NR) NR
  csDMARD 49 51 (NR) 78 11 (NR)c 43 (NR) 32 (NR) 6.8 (NR)
  1. Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise indicated. aTocilizumab (TCZ) 4 mg + conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (csDMARD) comparator group is excluded in this overview; bTCZ 2 mg, TCZ 4 mg, TCZ 2 mg + csDMARD and TCZ 4 mg + csDMARD comparator groups were excluded; cTCZ was given open-label, treatment with methotrexate (MTX) was double-blind; dfirst-year therapy was double-blind followed by a second year of open-label therapy; eopen-label for clinical efficacy endpoints, single-blind only for radiographic evaluation; fall patients were MTX-naïve, but only approximately 80 % were entirely csDMARD-naïve; gmonths; hHealth Assessment Questionnaire-physical function (HAQ-PF) score. TCZ tocilizumab, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, NS percentage not specified, NR not reported