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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and high levels of rheumatoid factor are associated with systemic bone loss in patients with early untreated rheumatoid arthritis

Variable Value in study participants (n = 155)
Demographics
 Age, mean (SD), years 57.8 (13.9)
 Female gender, n (%) 115 (74.2)
 Postmenopausal, n (%) 70 (60.9)
 Age at menopause, mean (SD), years 49.7 (4.2)
 Premature menopause, n (%) 3 (4.3)
 Caucasian, n (%) 148 (95.5)
 Body mass index, median (IQR), kg/m2 25 (22–28)
 Current smoker, n (%) 30 (19.4)
 Alcohol ≥3 units/day, n (%) 3 (1.9)
 Comorbidities, mean number (SD) 0.4 (0.6)
 Previous fracture, n (%) 7 (4.5)
 Parent fractured hip, n (%) 15 (9.7)
 Calcium supplementation, n (%) 2 (1.3)
 Vitamin D supplementation, n (%) 3 (1.9)
 Bisphosphonate use, n (%) 2 (1.3)
 Hormone replacement therapy, n (%) 5 (3.2)
Disease characteristics
 Symptom duration, median (IQR), weeks 12.9 (8.6–25.7)
 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria fulfilled, n (%) 107 (69)
 Disease activity score in 28 joints, mean (SD) 4.42 (1.28)
 Swollen joint count in 28 joints, median (IQR) 5 (3–8)
 Tender joint count in 28 joints, median (IQR) 6 (3–10)
 Ultrasound grayscale score, median (IQR), 0–36 score 5 (2–9)
 Ultrasound power Doppler score, median (IQR), 0–36 score 2 (0–7)
 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, median (IQR), mm/1 h 17 (8–33)
 C-reactive protein, median (IQR), mg/dlL 0.7 (0.3–1.7)
 Rheumatoid factor-positive, n (%) 67 (43.2)
 Rheumatoid factor titres in positive patients, median (IQR), U/mL 82 (34.8–195.8)
 Anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive, n (%) 66 (42.6)
 Anti-citrullinated protein antibody titres in positive patients, median (IQR), U/mL 237 (77.5–445.8)
 Erosion Sharp–van der Heijde Score ≥1, n (%) (n = 152) 32 (21.1)
 Total Sharp–van der Heijde Score, median (IQR), 0–448 scale (n = 152) 3 (1.25–7.5)
 Health Assessment Questionnaire, median (IQR), 0–3 scale 1 (0.438–1.438)
DXA
 Spine L1–L4 (n = 153)  
  Bone mineral density, mean (SD), g/cm2 0.936 (0.157)
  Z score, mean (SD) 0.013 (1.315)
  Z score ≤ -1, n (%) 39 (25.5)
  - men 13 (33.3)
  - premenopausal women 13 (28.9)
  - postmenopausal women 13 (18.1)
 Total hip (n = 155)
  BMD, mean (SD), g/cm2 0.728 (0.132)
  Z score, mean (SD) -0.128 (1.027)
  Z score ≤ -1, n (%) 30 (19.4)
  - men 7 (17.5)
  - premenopausal women 12 (26.7)
  - postmenopausal women 11 (15.7)
 Either spine L1–L4 or total hip (n = 153)  
  Z score ≤1, n (%) 54 (35.3)
  - men 16 (41)
  - premenopausal women 19 (42.2)
  - postmenopausal women 19 (27.5)