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Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables for SLE patients in discovery and validation cohorts

From: A discrete cluster of urinary biomarkers discriminates between active systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without glomerulonephritis

  Discovery Validation
Demographic variables SLE Active LN (n = 60) SLE Active non-LN (n = 25) Healthy controls (n = 24) SLE Active LN (n = 33) SLE Active non-LN (n = 16) SLE Remission LN (n = 30)
Age
 Range (years) 18–64 18–61 23–47 18–56 19–67 19–67
 Mean ± SD (median) 35.5 ± 12.7 (32) 30.0 ± 11.9 (26) 32.8 ± 6.7 (31) 28.5 ± 9.5 (27) 36.8 ± 15.9 (36) 40.0 ± 13.6 (40.5)
Gender, n (%) female 46 (82.1) 22 (88) 21 (87.5) 28 (84.8) 15 (93.8) 28 (93.3)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Caucasian 29 (48.3) 9 (36) 14 (58.3) 14 (42.4) 6 (37.5) 20 (66.7)
 African Canadian 14 (23.3) 7 (28) 1 (4.2) 8 (24.2) 2 (12.5) 4 (13.3)
 Asian 9 (15) 5 (20) 3 (12.5) 5 (11.6) 2 (12.5) 2 (6.7)
 Othera 8 (13.3) 4 (16) 6 (25) 6 (18.2) 6 (37.5) 4 (13.3)
Clinical featuresb, n (%)
 Rash 8 (14.3) 12 (48) N/A 11 (33.3) 3 (18.8) 0
 Mucocutaneous 9 (16.1) 9 (36) N/A 0 2 (12.5) 0
 Alopecia 4 (7.1) 7 (28) N/A 4 (12.1) 5 (31.2) 1 (3.3)
 Arthritis 13 (23.2) 13 (52) N/A 3 (9.1) 9 (56.2) 0
 Serositis 8 (14.3) 4 (16) N/A 2 (6.1) 1 (6.2) 0
 Myositis 1 (1.8) 0 N/A 0 1 (6.2) 0
 Hematological 6 (10.7) 6 (24) N/A 2 (6.1) 3 (18.8) 0
 Fever 3 (5.4) 1 (4) N/A 1 (3.0) 2 (12.5) 0
 Nephritis (≥1 or more SLEDAI-2 K criteria) 59 (98.3)c 0 N/A 33 (100) 0 1 (3.3)
 Vasculitis 3 (5.4) 7 (28) N/A 2 (6.1) 3 (18.8) 0
SLEDAI-2 K, mean ± SD (median) 15.6 ± 7.4 (16) 10.1 ± 4.7 (10) N/A 14.2 ± 5.6 (14) 7.2 ± 2.7 (8) 1.7 ± 1.9 (1)
Creatinine, mean ± SD (median) 118.0 ± 78.8 (87) 64.5 ± 9.6 (62) N/A 91.8 ± 81.1 (69) 69.2 ± 16.0 (70.5) 81.8 ± 25.3 (75.5)
Medicationsb
 Prednisone (mg/day), mean ± SD (median) 28.5 ± 20.8 (30) 10.8 ± 30.4 (0) N/A 21.8 ± 18.8 (15) 8.5 ± 13.2 (4) 6.1 ± 6.9 (4)
 Anti-malarials, n (%) 31 (55.4) 15 (60) N/A 21 (63.6) 13 (81.2) 24 (80)
 Immunosuppressives, n (%) 55 (91.7) 5 (20) N/A 27 (81.8) 10 (62.5) 22 (73.3)
  Azathioprine, n (%) 9 (16.1) 3 (12) N/A 11 (33.3) 3 (18.8) 9 (30)
  Mycophenolate mofetil, n (%) 15 (26.8) 1 (4) N/A 9 (27.3) 2 (12.5) 10 (33.3)
  Methotrexate, n (%) 1 (1.8) 1 (4) N/A 1 (3.0) 5 (31.2) 1 (3.3)
  1. In the validation cohort, eight patients had renal biopsies an average of 10 days from sample accrual
  2. aOther ethnicities include Hispanic, Filipino, mixed, and, for three healthy controls, unknown ethnicity
  3. bClinical variables and treatment at time of recruitment
  4. cOne patient had a renal biopsy performed for 0.45 g/24 h proteinuria
  5. LN lupus nephritis, N/A not applicable, SD standard deviation, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SLEDAI-2 K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000