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Table 1 Participant characteristics at the time of sampling

From: Plasma, urine and ligament tissue metabolite profiling reveals potential biomarkers of ankylosing spondylitis using NMR-based metabolic profiles

Characteristics Urine and plasma samples Ligament tissue samples
Patients with AS HC P valuea patients with AS Patients with FNF P valuea
Number of participants 44 44 30 30
Age, years, mean ± SD 31.8 ± 10.9 33.8 ± 9.7 0.350 40.6 ± 12.8 46.6 ± 11.6 0.065
 Range 18–59 18–57 20–71 31–72
 18–29 15 12 6 2
 30–49 21 22 14 13
 50–79 8 10 10 15
Sex, n (%)    1.000    0.037
 Female 6 (13.6 %) 6 (13.6 %) 4 (13.3 %) 11 (36.7 %)
 Male 38 (86.4 %) 38 (86.4 %) 26 (86.7 %) 19 (63.3 %)
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD 21.8 ± 2.4 22.5 ± 2.9 0.226 22.8 ± 2.0 23.7 ± 1.5 0.062
 <18.5 13 12 9 7
 18.5–25 25 23 14 15
 >25 6 9 7 8
Disease duration, years, mean ± SD 6.8 ± 3.5 14.2 ± 4.8
 <5 25 0
 5–10 18 11
 >10 1 19
BASDAI score 3.2 ± 1.8 5.8 ± 1.1
 0–3 20 0
 3–6 23 18
 6–10 1 12
BASFI score 3.9 ± 2.1 5.5 ± 0.9
 0–3 20 0
 3–6 22 19
 6–10 2 11
Treatment duration, years, mean ± SD 2.8 ± 1.5 8.4 ± 3.6
 0 32 0
 1–10 11 19
 11–20 1 9
 >20 0 2
  1. Abbreviations: AS Ankylosing spondylitis, FNF Femoral neck fractures, BMI Body mass index, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, HC Healthy control subjects
  2. aCalculated using Student’s t test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables between patients with AS and healthy control subjects