Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of potential biomarkers of ankylosing spondylitis by plasma, urine and tissue metabolomic analysis

From: Plasma, urine and ligament tissue metabolite profiling reveals potential biomarkers of ankylosing spondylitis using NMR-based metabolic profiles

Metabolite Sample type Statusa Chemical shift Correlation coefficient (AS vs HC)b VIP valueb FCc P valued
Leucine Plasma 0.96 (d), 0.97 (d), 1.72 (m), 1.72 (m), 3.73 (t) −0.452 0.698 0.932 0.045
Valine Plasma 1.00 (d), 1.05 (d), 2.28 (m), 3.62 (d) −0.302 1.090 0.86 <0.001
3-HB Plasma 1.20 (d), 2.32 (dd), 2.42 (dd), 4.16 (m) 0.422 1.328 1.254 <0.001
Alanine Plasma 1.48 (d), 3.77 (q) −0.332 1.664 0.770 <0.001
NAG Plasma 2.05 (s) 0.570 0.065 1.207 <0.001
Methionine Plasma 2.14 (s), 2.16 (m), 2.65 (t), 3.87 (t) 0.597 1.701 1.325 <0.001
TG (L1, L2, L3, L5, L7, L8) Plasma 0.86 (t), 0.88 (t), 1.27 (m), 2.01 (m), 2.76 (m), 5.30 (m) −0.400 0.977 0.814–1.077 <0.05
Acetone Plasma 2.23 (s) 0.298 1.358 1.415 <0.001
Acetoacetate Plasma 2.29 (s) 2.294 0.884 1.249 <0.001
Betaine Plasma 3.26 (s), 3.91 (s) 0.334 0.287 1.038 0.030
Glycerol Plasma 3.65 (dd), 3.56 (dd), 3.77 (m) 0.328 1.400 1.207 <0.001
Glucose Plasma 3.42 (dd), 3.54 (dd), 3.71 (dd), 3.78 (m), 3.84 (m), 5.26 (d) −0.317 0.559 0.909 0.013
Glutamate Plasma 2.07 (m), 2.35 (m), 3.75 (m) −0.374 1.300 0.789 <0.001
Butyrate Urine 0.90 (t), 1.56 (m), 2.16 (t) −0.447 1.533 0.896 0.003
Creatinine Urine 3.04 (s), 3.93 (s) −0.331 1.330 0.814 0.018
Glycine Urine 3.56 (s) 3.392 1.088 1.298 0.009
Hippurate Urine 7.84 (d), 7.64 (t), 7.56 (dd) 0.421 0.772 1.320 0.017
PAG Urine 8.03 (d), 7.36 (m), 7.37 (m), 7.43 (m) −0.306 1.213 0.895 0.028
Glutamate Urine 2.07 (m), 2.35 (m), 3.75 (m) −0.429 1.541 0.919 0.002
2-PY Urine 7.83 (dd), 8.55 (d) 0.461 0.700 1.182 0.049
TG (L2, L3, L5, L6, L7, L8) Tissue 0.88 (t), 1.27 (m), 2.01 (m), 2.30 (m), 2.76 (m), 5.33 (m) 0.946 1.060 2.490–7.039 <0.001
Choline Tissue 4.14 (m), 4.29 (m), 5.26 (m) −0.680 0.718 0.242 <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: AS Ankylosing spondylitis, VIP Variable importance for projection, FC Fold change, 3-HB 3-Hydroxybutyrate, NAG N-acetyl glycoprotein, TG Triglycerides, PAG Phenylacetylglycine, 2-PY 2-Pyridone-3-carboxamide, L1 CH 3(CH2)n., L2 CH 3CH2CH2C=, L3 -(CH 2)n-, L5 -CH 2C = C-, L6 CH 2CO, L7 C = CCH 2C = C, L8 -CH = CH-
  2. aRelative concentrations compared with healthy control subjects: ↑ = up-regulated; ↓ = down-regulated
  3. bCorrelation coefficient and VIP value were obtained from orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis
  4. cFold change between patients with AS and healthy control subjects
  5. d P value determined using Student’s t test