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Table 5 Univariable associations of hypocomplementaemia with clinical manifestations, treatment, European Scleroderma Study Group disease activity score and physician global assessments

From: The association of low complement with disease activity in systemic sclerosis: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Persistent normocomplementaemia (n = 859) At least one episode of hypocomplementaemia (n = 275)  
n (%) or mean ± SD or median (IQR) n (%) or mean ± SD or median (IQR) p Value
Disease manifestationa
 Raynaud’s phenomenon 803 (93.5 %) 262 (95.6 %) 0.19
 BMI <20 kg/m2 104 (13.0 %) 54 (20.5 %) 0.0030
 Digital ulcers 263 (30.7 %) 82 (30.0 %) 0.848
 Digital gangrene/amputation 76 (8.8 %) 17 (6.2 %) 0.17
 Telangiectasia 716 (83.6 %) 231 (84.6 %) 0.68
 Calcinosis 340 (39.7 %) 99 (36.3 %) 0.31
 Scleroderma 565 (66.2 %) 198 (72.8 %) 0.044
 Tendon friction rub 88 (10.3 %) 24 (8.8 %) 0.47
 Joint contracture 332 (38.9 %) 99 (36.4 %) 0.46
 Synovitis 241 (28.3 %) 82 (30.0 %) 0.59
Muscle atrophy 147 (17.2 %) 63 (23.2 %) 0.029
 MRSS >20 158 (18.7 %) 49 (18.0 %) 0.81
 Myocardial disease 70 (8.1 %) 17 (6.2 %) 0.30
 Pericardial effusion 45 (5.3 %) 25 (9.1 %) 0.023
 PAH 90 (10.4 %) 30 (10.9 %) 0.82
 Pulmonary fibrosis 263 (30.8 %) 77 (30.1 %) 0.40
 Gastrointestinal involvement 493 (57.5 %) 145 (52.7 %) 0.17
  GAVE 86 (10.1 %) 27 (9.9 %) 0.94
  Reflux oesophagitis 722 (83.8 %) 236 (85.8 %) 0.41
  Oesophageal stricture 109 (12.8 %) 23 (8.4 %) 0.051
  Oesophageal dysmotility 346 (40.5 %) 111 (40.8 %) 0.92
  Bowel dysmotility 226 (26.4 %) 71 (25.9 %) 0.88
  Pseudo-obstruction 25 (2.9 %) 12 (4.4 %) 0.23
 Renal crises 36 (4.2 %) 8 (2.9 %) 0.34
 eGFR <60 ml/minute 229 (22.8 %) 68 (25.0 %) 0.55
 Myositis 37 (5.2 %) 21 (8.5 %) 0.055
 CRP >8 mg/L 266 (31.1 %) 67 (24.9 %) 0.051
 ESR >30 mm/h 252 (29.6 %) 71 (26.1 %) 0.27
 Blood CK >200 IU/L 105 (12.1 %) 44 (16.0 %) 0.098
 Anaemia 302 (35.1 %) 101 (36.7 %) 0.62
 FVC <80 % 225 (26.9 %) 73 (27.0 %) 0.97
 DLCO <80 % 631 (80.5 %) 201 (78.2 %) 0.43
Treatmenta
 Corticosteroids 380 (43.9 %) 126 (45.8 %) 0.58
 Immunotherapy 364 (42.1 %) 131 (47.6 %) 0.11
 Biologic therapy 9 (1.0 %) 7 (2.6 %) 0.065
 Home oxygen 32 (3.7 %) 9 (3.3 %) 0.74
EScSG scoreb 2.5 (1.4) 2 (1–4) 0.16
Physician global assessmentsb
 Health 4 (3–6) 4 (3–6) 0.25
 Activity 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 0.076
 Damage 4 (2.5–6) 4 (3–6) 0.44
  1. Abbreviations: MRSS Modified Rodnan skin score, EScSG European Scleroderma Study Group, PAH Pulmonary arterial hypertension, ILD Interstitial lung disease, GAVE Gastric antral vascular ectasia, BMI Body mass index, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, CRP C-reactive protein, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CK Creatinine kinase, FVC Forced vital capacity, DLCO Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for haemoglobin
  2. aEver from disease onset to most recent visit
  3. bMean score from all visits