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Fig. 5 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 5

From: Circulating exosomes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus induce a proinflammatory immune response

Fig. 5

Exosomes from SLE induce secretion of inflammatory cytokines via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Human PBMCs were incubated with SLE exosomes in the presence of specific antagonists to TLR1/2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9. After 24 h, levels of IFN-α (a), TNF-α (b), IL-1β (c), and IL-6 (d) were determined. Data are presented as the median and interquartile range.*p < 0.05. IFN interferon, IL interleukin, TNF tumor necrosis factor

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